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Taurine and arginine play a key role in the feline diet but I am unaware as to where exactly they fit in.

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From the Taurine Wikipedia article:

The absence of taurine causes a cat's retina to slowly degenerate, causing eye problems and (eventually) irreversible blindness – a condition known as central retinal degeneration (CRD), as well as hair loss and tooth decay. Decreased plasma taurine concentration has been demonstrated to be associated with feline dilated cardiomyopathy.

Arginine is an Essential Amino Acid for cats (and many other mammals - including Humans while we're infants). That is, they cannot synthesize it on their own and must obtain it entirely from their diet. A 10lb. (5kg) cat will require about .86g of Arginine - which is abundant in all meats and can be met with a few ounces of food.

I could not find anything particularly special about Arginine as opposed to other EAA's for cats.

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Arginine is not essential for adult humans. Cats and dogs probably (I don't know for certain but I'm guessing) require arginine because of its crucial role in the urea cycle and their high rate of ammonia production as a result of amino acid catabolism for energy production. – Brenton Horne Sep 11 '13 at 5:23
Oh and for me to accept your answer regarding Taurine I am going to need something to back that up I saw that article before you mentioned it but I wanted something more scholarly than wikipedia – Brenton Horne Sep 11 '13 at 5:42
Depending on who you ask, there are between 8-10 EAA's. Arginine is required during pediatric development, thus it's my habit to include it. Feel free to follow the links from the wikipedia entry (60, 61) at the bottom. The original studies are from the 1980's and I cannot access them as the website is currently taking too long to respond. – MCM Sep 11 '13 at 13:43
arginine is a conditionally essential nutrient in humans - but essential in cats - I will put some effort into this and place an answer – Vance L Albaugh Nov 25 '15 at 23:24

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