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Which cells in a human have the longest lifespan? Which cell has the shortest lifespan?

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Neuronal cells do not divide. Mature ones anyway –  von Mises Sep 19 '13 at 14:33
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Some mature neurons can last a lifetime. Gastrointestinal cells such as those in the colon might be shortest-lived, and skin may give them a run for their money. However, depending on how you define lifespan, egg and sperm cells could beat those numbers. Also, some immune cells only last a few days under certain scenarios, such as the aptly-named short-lived plasma cells.

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