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When extracellular $K^+$ concentration increase by a certain amount, excitability of cells is higher because the resting potential shifts toward a higher equilibrium potential of $K^+$, therefore causing depolarization. However, when there concentration of extracellular $Ca^{2+}$ increases, excitability of cells decreases. If $Ca^{2+}$ and $K^+$ are both positively charged ions, what is the cause behind their opposite physiological effects?

I'm not a biology student, so detailed answers would be kindly appreciated. Thank you!

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Hyperkalaemia (high potassium levels) actually paradoxically decreases the excitability of cells due to increased channel inactivation –  Rory M Oct 22 '13 at 22:56
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If extracellular $Ca^{2+}$ concentration increased, it makes the extracellular membrane more positive then it used to be, then it would take the membrane potential to lower level then the excitability of the cells will be decreased

if extracellular $K^+$ increased more than the concentration inside the cell than it will make the $K^+$ on extracellular space move inside the call down the concentration gradient, it would take the potential membrane to higher state make it easier to reach the threshold (easier to be excitable)

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