I think you are misunderstanding "color" here. When applied to cats, it doesn't literally mean a color shade as used in color theory, but "coat color" which can in fact also be a "coat pattern".
The cats above are two-colored, not three-colored. One color is white. The other color is what is called "tabby" in English and is a pattern of dark spots arranged in regular stripes on a lighter background. These spots are not considered a third color in cats.
This is a calico cat. Her three coat colors are white, orange, and grey tabby. See how the orange and grey are irregularly interspersed, this is the pattern of paternal and maternal chromosome expression on her body. Again, the grey and black patches within the tabby part are regularly placed. They don't make two separate colors, grey and black, but a single coat coloring, grey tabby. There are also other color combinations in calico cats, for example white-orange-black, and they are more straightforward to recognize.