At the beginning of the 20th century, Raunkiær proposed a typology of plant life-forms based on where they bear their buds, roughly as:
hemicryptophytes: at the surface
chamaephytes: close to the surface
phanerophytes: projected above the surface
Are these still held to be useful / biologically meaningful categories? Is there a different typology preferred (eg. tree/shrub/subshrub)? Or are people moving toward gradients of quantified traits instead of typologies (eg. measuring plant height, specific leaf area, etc.)?