How does human body deal with inert solid material in the bloodstream? For example, if there is a powder of glass injected into our bloodstream, will the white blood cells do anything or will kidney excrete these materials? Thanks.
Non-opsonized particles (Particles that can't be coated with opsonins like antibodies or complement proteins) can be engulfed by macrophages which could end up, for example, in the lung secretions and be coughed up one day. Note that a cell can only engulf a particle so large, so you'll not feel yourself coughing up anything out of the ordinary. Only tiny particles can be dealt with like this. Bigger particles can become trapped in fine vasculature (small veins; venules, and small arteries;arterioles). This can lead to abscess formation necessitating amputation of the affected limb.