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From this we can see that diatoms reduce their size after asexual reproduction.enter image description here

This would ultimately lead to nonviable small size. Is there any mechanism to avoid this ?

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Oh at last... someone used the "answer your own question" option! Anyway, a related This,this and this one are related articles. – Satwik Pasani Feb 1 '14 at 14:23
up vote 2 down vote accepted

The ability to reproduce sexually is closely associated with cell size of the diatom. It is the most prevalent method of restoring cell size, and it is often triggered when the size of a cell is less than a critical level (usually smaller than half of the original size for most species).

Source : Sexual reproduction in diatoms

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