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I've seen many times mentioned in textbooks and popular articles that a reason of the Cambrian explosion is an 'evolutionary arms race' between predators and prey. But this isn't really a sufficient reason, since that happens all the time, but evolution seems to happen only at brief intervals separated with long intervals of stasis, which is described extensively in the Punctuated equilibrium hypothesis.

So, my question is, what made the evolutionary arms race of the Cambrian possible?

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Lots of things happened during the Cambrian explosion, and I do not think that anyone believes that it was only due to predator-prey arms races. The wikipedia page has a summary of hypotheses, and as you can see the arms race theory is just one of many. It is also likely that there is no single cause, but several interacting factors. –  fileunderwater Feb 12 at 16:10
    
I think it is really wrong to assume that evolution occurs only in punctuated way. Evolution is a continuous process. –  biogirl Feb 14 at 15:55

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