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Fulminant seems to mead rapid. There is however some articles with both phrases: "fulminant meningococcecemia" (about 5000 Google matches) and "acute meningococcecemia" (about 3000 Google matches).

I am thinking Neisseria meningitidis and its pathogenesis

Portal entry nasopharynx (pili)-> attach epithelium cells -> bloodstream (bacteremia); upper respiratory tract infection -symptoms; may be asymptomatic in transient flora; fulminant meningocococcemia (regardless of meningitis)

What is the difference between the two diseases?

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When we say "Fulminant meningococcemia" we mean failure of adrenal glands due to haemorrhage of infectious origin, or Waterhouse–Friderichsen syndrome

and acute is related to time of signs appearance, opposed to chronic disease.

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Can we say that all fulminant diseases are acute? In this case, the fulminant disease seems to acute. –  Masi Feb 21 at 15:53
    
in medicine there are not 100%, so we only can say that most of fulminant infections are acute, but sometimes chronic bacteremia or chronic wounds can lead to fulminant deterioration in the host –  Ilan Feb 21 at 16:35
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