How do the instinct to create a hive appeared in bees? Is there some evidence of
"intermediate" hives? With this questions i mean all the factors necessary to build a hive, including the social structure, the producing of beeswax and architecture.
I'm assuming you mean the distinct architecture and regular hexagonal shapes in bee honeycombs?
In fact, Charles Darwin spent a good bit of time with honeycombs.
First of all bees and wasps have a common progenitor and wasps also build combs and nests, albeit of paper/celluose as opposed to wax. He was interested in how the perfect hexagonal lattice formed in the wax.
This seems to have a built in burrowing behavior in how the lattice forms that eventually turns into hexagonal shapes.
BTW this topic is very similar to the evolution of spider webs, which is also fascinating.
I remember an episode of a German science show talking about this. If you do an experiment with bubbles. Eventually several bubbles will share boundaries and a hexagonal form will emerge.
Following this it is no instinct but the best way to create boundaries.
They had a more scientific explanation for this.
There you go: http://www.exploratorium.edu/ronh/bubbles/bubble_meets_bubble.html And I quote:
I just noticed I was answering to an answer. My answer to the question would be that almost every animal on the planet builds nests. If you are a termite you can use mud. If you are a wasp or a bee you build nests in the air or at least not in the mud. That means you have to carry your material through the air. The less the better. Efficiency dictates that you build your "hive" or nest as compact as possible. That means spherical shape which has the most volume vs surface ratio and the hexagons inside follow the same rule. Use as little material as possible or you are outcompeted by bees that do.
Also it's a lot more efficient to "manage" a cluster vs nests cluttered all over the place. Again no instinct just necessity which eventually evolved into instinct. Because all other instincts became extinct.