You sleep at night and are active during the day that's how things work for humans, but theoretically if a human whose parents lived on earth were to be born in another planet resembling earth but the difference was that this planet has an 8.5 hour day, what kind of changes will this person undergo?if a human who grew up on earth suddenly had to move to this planet how would his body adapt? what would be the difference between a person who moves to this 8.5 hour day planet with the person that was born there? and would the person who was born on this planet be active for 4.25 hours and then sleep for the other 4.25?
Actually, for your example it would be pretty easy to adapt. You just have a 25.5 hour day with 12.75 hours of day and 12.75 hours of night. Except you have a 4.25 hour period in the middle of the day where you stay inside and use lights (like in the evening for most people on Earth) and a 4.25 hour period at night where you make sure your eye mask is on.
Added convenience: there are three different choices of when to call day so it's good for shift work and there's no problem with traffic. Let's move there!
Humans have evolved for 24 hour days and our bodies would not adapt well to this short of sleep/wake cycles (whether or not they were born there, unless they have been there for many generations and have been able to evolve for the new time). Our bodies would still want to spend about the same amount of time sleeping and being awake.
If we tried to adjust our sleep cycles to this planet with 8.5 hour days, we would experience many of the stresses that occur during jet lag (Google Scholar search), which can cause depression. Jet lag is identical to experiencing one day which is shorter or longer than the typical 24 hours.
The sunlight helps set our circadian rhythm, but 8.5 hours would be too fast. I thought I heard for an experiment that used mice that supports this, but I still haven't found the reference yet.
Nbogard referenced the article Plasticity of the Intrinsic Period of the Human Circadian Timing System, which showed that the circadian rhythm in humans can be altered by up to 0.65 hours by the use of lights. This is consistent with what I mentioned that the sunlight helps to set our circadian rhythm.
The best way to adapt would be to use artificial lighting to keep your days about 24 hour days (artificial light during waking hours, heavy curtains during sleeping hours), as mentioned in ThePopMachine's answer.