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I am an amateur interested in neuroscience and was curious whether there is a process by which a neuron or group of neurons would close their receptors and stop receiving signals from specific synapses for a temporary period?

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I think you might be onto the desentization of neurons. Here's a not very helpful Wiki link and a paper –  dayuloli May 31 at 15:56
    
AFAIK, receptors can not respond to stimuli if 1) they are modified in some way that it no longer binds its ligand, 2) modified in some way that the binding does not induce a change detectable inside the cell, 3) the old ligands are not cleared so any new signals are not noticed...these are the things I can think of right now... –  dayuloli May 31 at 16:00
    
drugs can apparently have this effect of decreasing synaptic sensitivity due to habituation! also see anaesthesia –  vzn Aug 6 at 15:39

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An example would be the neurons that switch off/switch on based on our sleep cycle. Nerve-signaling chemicals called neurotransmitters control whether we are asleep or awake by acting on different groups of nerve cells, or neurons, in the brain. Neurons in the brainstem, which connects the brain with the spinal cord, produce neurotransmitters such as serotonin and norepinephrine that keep some parts of the brain active while we are awake. Other neurons at the base of the brain begin signaling when we fall asleep. These neurons appear to "switch off" the signals that keep us awake. Research also suggests that a chemical called adenosine builds up in our blood while we are awake and causes drowsiness. This chemical gradually breaks down while we sleep (reference and reference). Here is a study based on switch on/switch off of fear i mice (reference).

There are also artificial ways in which to shut down receptors like our sweet receptors (reference). There have also been studies done on other organisms where one particular study showed the switch on/switch off of olfactory receptors in cockroach antenna (reference).

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