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From what I understand, one form of cancer is a faulty gene responsible for the programmed death of a cell.

Not long ago, popular wisdom used to say neurons don't regenerate. However that is no longer believed to be true, if I am to believe what the internet says. For me, this begs the question: can neurogenesis result in faulty death genes which in turn result in overgrowth of the number of neurons? Would those neurons be functional? And if so, if theoretically such a brain could be artificially sustained without a body, would its growth be beneficial (in terms of intelligence)?

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Yes, but rarely.

Other types of brain cells are much more likely to form tumors. Oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, and more generally glial cells all form tumors with some regularity.

Nerve sheaths can also form benign growths.

Nerves themselves can even manifest cancerous behavior, even though they are nearly always benign and very slow growing. Unfortunately, they tend to cause seizures, increased intercranial pressure, and decreased neurological function in affected areas.

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