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The novice often performs population calculations using what is referred to as Mendelian Genetics. Soon after the publication of Mendel's results; Hardy and Weinberg presented their results after the interjection of a collection of axioms.

Is there a difference between Medelian genetics and the Hardy-Weinberg model?

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“after the injection of a collection of axioms” – not really, that’s the whole point. Their formula derives directly from Mendelian genetics, but biologists at the time had no formal training in mathematics and therefore had difficulties doing the calculations. –  Konrad Rudolph Jul 16 '12 at 10:52
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Mendel published his results 1866 but they were rediscovered only in 1900. The Hardy-Weinberg model is an application of Mendel's rules to a population that is not under selection forces. So the one builds on the other, and Hardy-Weinberg is a simplification model-wise, and Mendel's rules are not detailed enough either. It's the same relation as with a physical law like gravitation and a mathematical model of its consequences applied on many entities, like models of a solar system's gravitational behaviour.

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