A healthy immune response to a bacterial infection includes "memory" to permit the body to thwart subsequent exposure to same bacteria. What are the dynamics of using antibiotics on initial exposure to the bacteria regarding a possible degradation of the quality of this "memory" and thus the body's possibly compromised ability to fight a repeat exposure to same bacteria ?
A quick search on ISI Web of Knowledge yielded this paper:
The authors investigated the effects of ampicillin treatement in mice infected with Listeria monocytogenes. They reported an abridgement of T cell-mediated antibacterial immunity and in particular an effect upon the development of memory:
Presumably any treatment that reduces the need for an immune response will have an effect upon the production of useful memory T cells.
Edited for Clarity:
In order to invoke a memory response or create a memory response, there must be interaction with the Adaptive Immune System (usually CD40+ "Helper" T-Cells), and the interaction must come in the form of a protein since the MHC receptors only respond to proteins.
Antibiotics are usually smaller macromolecules that directly cause slower growth or kill the microbe. They will *not* create or illicit a memory response because they are not presented to the immune system to initiate the proper procedure, and may not be proteins and unable to be presented in the first place.
If you're asking about vaccines (which was my inference before the edit), then they stimulate what is basically the same memory creation mechanisms that normal infections do. Antibody counterparts recognized by B-Cells are paired with proteins from the disease you want to immunize against, called the Hapten and Carrier respectively. Then the protein is processed via the B-Cells, presented to T-Cells, and a memory response is made.
My apologies if the previous answer was more ambiguous.