There are two types of food poisoning:
This is the case when you consume food which is contaminated with some toxins, and those are responsible for development of the poisoning symptoms. The source organisms of these toxins might not be present anymore (killed by heating during cooking, for example). In this case there is no massive invasion of any foreign organisms into the gut.
This happens if you eat the food contaminated with microorganisms, and these start to massively proliferate in your alimentary system causing the symptoms of poisoning. The massive intake of the bacteria (even 2-3 spoons of contaminated food might contain millions of bacteria, like Staphilococcus in contaminated diary products). In this case the balance of gut microflora is dramatically changed due to introduction of a considerable amount of foreign microorganisms.
So, even the poisoning seems to be "minor" (e.g., its symptoms are not so dramatic), there could be different amounts of bacteria invading the guts.
The second important point here is the increased emptying of the gut due to diarrhea that leads to the washing out some of the "good" bacteria from the guts, especially in case of profuse diarrhea. The newly coming bacteria are not necessarily those that are present in normal microflora, and it takes days or even weeks until the microflora reaches homeostasis again.
One last point: even without poisoning, microflora varies, and the amount of different bacterial fractions can fluctuate over time. This is normal and depends upon your eating habits, your environment, immune status, and many other factors.