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By "children" I mean young people at the age of 10 or lower.

I know that the adult brain cannot restore brain cells, but what about children? I mean, the brain must develop from a few cells to a 90 billion cells somehow, when do we lose this ability?

I'm also interested in cases when a child gets hit into the head (concussion). Can the damage be fixed over time?

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There is a misconception in your question about the absence of neurogenesis in adults. It is definitely present in adults as has been shown by a host of recent studies. If you want some technical details on neurogenesis or a question about what exactly changes in children at the end of critical period. –  Artem Kaznatcheev Oct 14 '12 at 15:42
    
@Artem Kaznatcheev: true, however neurogenesis and regeneration are not necessarily the same thing (i.e.: neurogenesis does not imply regeneration, although the opposite is obviously true). –  nico Oct 14 '12 at 16:19
    
@nico I didn't mean to suggest that they were, otherwise I'd submit my comment as an answer. I was just going off a vibe I got from the question. I don't know anything about regeneration and so did not got beyond a comment. –  Artem Kaznatcheev Oct 14 '12 at 16:40
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@Artem Kaznatcheev: surely I was merely pointing that out in case it was not completely clear especially for the OP :) –  nico Oct 14 '12 at 16:55
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I am not an expert in neurobiology, but this is what I have been able to find:

In general, the PNS (peripheral nervous system) does have remarkable neuroregeneration capabilities. However, the CNS (central nervous system), which includes the brain, has extremely limited neuroregeneration abilities. However, there are some interesting examples of CNS recovery:

Children under six who undergo, unfortunately, a hemiectomy, whereby one half of their brain is taken out, are able to regain almost normal function because of the brain’s ability to rewire and literally take over the functions of the missing other half of the brain.

I am guessing one thing that can explain this is that in children, the CNS is still developing, and so if there is damage, the CNS can just entirely replace damaged parts (this might be different than "fixing" which is required in adults).

Again I am not an expert on this and would be glad to hear a neurobiologist's opinion.

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Would be nice to find a proper source for the hemiectomy quote –  nico Dec 2 '12 at 19:47
    
@nico here is one relevant reference I found: brain.oxfordjournals.org/content/126/3/556.long –  Bitwise Dec 3 '12 at 0:26
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Speaking to Artem Kaznatcheev's comment, it is not true that the adult brain is post-mitotic.

Dr Bernard Rabin has shown is his scientific research, often in collaboration with and funded by NASA, that the adult brain is not post-mitotic, meaning that cell growth and division does occur. The primary focus of his work is to examine the relationship between high-energy irradiation of the brain (such as on a long-term space mission, say to Mars) and normal aging, and how diet can affect that age-mimicking decline. A list of papers he's published in the field of the aging brain is here.

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This isn't quite the same; however, children can have parts of their brains removed and then the remaining parts of the brain can take over for that removed part. There are not also lasting effects of this even.

There is a neurosurgeon by the name of Benjamin Carson who has done a procedure called a hemispherectomy. A hemispherectomy is the act of removing one side of the person's brain. This procedure can only be done in children under the age of either 10 or 12 (I am so sorry, I can't remember right now).

The reason this can only be done in children is because the side of the brain not removed is able to take over for the removed side, this cannot occur in adults.

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As far as I recall, the age cut off for the procedure you're describing is closer to 1-2 than 10-12 –  Rory M Apr 26 at 20:28
    
@RoryM sorry about that. I guess I definitely didn't remember the age:) –  L.B. Apr 27 at 0:29
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