I think this is a trick question, since to understand what are the biomarkers we need to understand what are the encoding genes that make the antibodies.
Then, I would explain the reason why to investigate these things are difficult:
- autoimmune diseases are multifactorial and heterogenous
- self antigens that are the inducers are unknown
- targets of the autoimmune reactions often unknown too
Therefore, I would answer to this question by saying that MHC alleles are most important for human, but some non-MHC encoding alleles exist too.
Then, I would give a list of antibodies that those genes encode.
Finally, I would say different tests by which you can analyse those biomarkers. Abbas textbook mentions Antinuclear Antibody (ANA) test as a first test. Then, use other tests specific to the disease.
I never cannot remember complete lists of things. I can only manage the logic.
Do you see any flaw in my logic in answering the question?
I have an intuition that I have not explained enough about detecting mechanisms. What would you add here?