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I think this is a trick question, since to understand what are the biomarkers we need to understand what are the encoding genes that make the antibodies.

Then, I would explain the reason why to investigate these things are difficult:

  • autoimmune diseases are multifactorial and heterogenous
  • self antigens that are the inducers are unknown
  • targets of the autoimmune reactions often unknown too

Therefore, I would answer to this question by saying that MHC alleles are most important for human, but some non-MHC encoding alleles exist too.

Then, I would give a list of antibodies that those genes encode.

Finally, I would say different tests by which you can analyse those biomarkers. Abbas textbook mentions Antinuclear Antibody (ANA) test as a first test. Then, use other tests specific to the disease.

I never cannot remember complete lists of things. I can only manage the logic.

Do you see any flaw in my logic in answering the question?

I have an intuition that I have not explained enough about detecting mechanisms. What would you add here?

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closed as too broad by fileunderwater, Chris, Chris Stronks, ddiez, Bez Nov 24 at 14:19

There are either too many possible answers, or good answers would be too long for this format. Please add details to narrow the answer set or to isolate an issue that can be answered in a few paragraphs.If this question can be reworded to fit the rules in the help center, please edit the question.

What is a biomarker? –  Alan Boyd Dec 21 '12 at 19:08
@alan, I guess he means markers? –  terdon Dec 25 '12 at 8:27
The main hallmark of autoimmune diseases are abnormal levels of various leukocytes. –  terdon Dec 25 '12 at 8:29

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