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I think this is a trick question, since to understand what are the biomarkers we need to understand what are the encoding genes that make the antibodies.

Then, I would explain the reason why to investigate these things are difficult:

  • autoimmune diseases are multifactorial and heterogenous
  • self antigens that are the inducers are unknown
  • targets of the autoimmune reactions often unknown too

Therefore, I would answer to this question by saying that MHC alleles are most important for human, but some non-MHC encoding alleles exist too.

Then, I would give a list of antibodies that those genes encode.

Finally, I would say different tests by which you can analyse those biomarkers. Abbas textbook mentions Antinuclear Antibody (ANA) test as a first test. Then, use other tests specific to the disease.

I never cannot remember complete lists of things. I can only manage the logic.

Do you see any flaw in my logic in answering the question?

I have an intuition that I have not explained enough about detecting mechanisms. What would you add here?

share|improve this question
What is a biomarker? –  Alan Boyd Dec 21 '12 at 19:08
@alan, I guess he means markers? –  terdon Dec 25 '12 at 8:27
The main hallmark of autoimmune diseases are abnormal levels of various leukocytes. –  terdon Dec 25 '12 at 8:29

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