Is there any evolutionary reason (or background for) having the urinary duct and reproductive organs right next to each other (in both humans and many other vertebrates)?
Because it works.
Evolution doesn't grow things or remove things because they might be funky or useful, Evolution is dictated by the survivability of organisms. If a change helps an organism survive to pass on its genes, it's kept. If it doesn't, it's eliminated from the gene pool over time. As long as a change doesn't significantly help or harm, it can be kept for hundreds, thousands, even millions of generations.
Evolutionarily speaking they are where they are because we're mammals that were formally quadripeds that became bipeds. The stereotypical quadripedal design has the reproductive organs located near the pelvis. Probably because they're best protected there. Powerful hind limbs for kicking, and nasty teeth and claws up front. It also gives easy access for mating, which is pretty important if you want to continue the species. On quadripeds it could be pretty darn awkward if the genitalia were located near the ribcage
Really, you could come up with a lot of reasons why the organs are located where they are. There are a lot of advantages, and a lot of disadvantages, but in the end the simplest explanation is going to be "Because we can survive with them there." The advantages have outweighed the disadvantages for our species' history thus far, and until that changes they'll probably just stay where they are.