It is a very interesting question and I did some efforts to investigate the literature on this topic, but yet I don't have a definitive answer for you. But let's start from the beginning.
First of all, the reason for color deficiency can be not only lack (rare) or impairment (more often) of certain types of color-perceiving cells (cones) in retina, but also brain injures: the central color blindness can develop after head trauma or as a result of some neurodegenerative deceases, like Parkinson's decease. In case of brain origin of the color blindness it is usually the complete color blindness (no color is percieved), whereas congenical primary color blindness (receptor-based) is usually just the unability to distinguish one or two colors, whereas the rest can be more or less separated.
I searched Pubmed for the literature on the topic and found a recent PNAS paper about the simulation of primary and secondary visual cortex on humans using intracranial electrodes. As they describe their results (bold font by me):
When percepts were elicited from late areas, subjects reported that
they were simple shapes and colors....
But the paper investigated only healthy humans, no color impaired subjects were used for the tests, so cannot conclude from here whether we can elicit the perception of the color the person is incapable to see with the eyes using these stimulations.
I took this paper as the starting point and did some reference research, looking for the paper referenced there and for newer publications referencing this one: PNAS is one of the top journals in this area with very high impact factor and if there were a publication about brain stimulation and color blindness I would have definitely identified it.
During my investigations I came accross a series of interesting articles devoted to "cortical visual neuroprosthesis for the blind" (read this paper<1> from 2005 for review on this topic), but this is the treatment of conventional blindness, not the color blindness. There was no intersection in keywords or titles for color blindness and brain stimulation, both in the referenced articles and in the complete article database.
So, I would suggest that you address some talented experimentalist with your question and maybe one day, who knows, we will read your name under the Nature article dedicated to the novel way to cure color blindness.
<1> -- unfortunately not available publicly for free, I am sorry.