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Antheridia and archegonia are the two male and female gametangia, respectively, and they are found in bryophytes. To cause fertilization, usually a thin film of water must be present for the sperm from the antheridia to reach the archegonia. Why hasn't evolution trivialized this process? I have the same question for flowers that primarily undergo self-fertilization. How is this not inefficient?

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Can you clarify what you mean by 'trivialised this process'? Mosses live in moist habitats where water is abundant and therefore an obvious medium for allowing the sperm to reach the archegonia. Regarding the self-fertilisation in flowering plants (and i'm thinking of Arabidopsis here) pollen is most likely dehisced from the anthers before the flower has even opened to allow self fertilisation. This is a very efficient process so I'm also not sure what you mean asking how it is not inefficient. –  relf20 Mar 25 '13 at 21:58
    
Also, maintaining two seperate gametangia allows moss to outcross too which increases genetic variation in the offspring. –  relf20 Mar 25 '13 at 22:05
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