There is a lot of variation in how and when deer shed their antlers. In most arctic and temperate-zone species, antler growth and shedding is annual, and is controlled by the length of daylight. In tropical species, antlers may be shed at any time of year, and in some species such as the sambar, antlers last several years. Some equatorial deer never shed their antlers.
The horns change every year and, especially, increase the number of branches (and consequently, change their shape). You can't recognize them by antlers, but by other features, such as color of the hair or the lineaments. Like us, animals have individual morphological differences that are recognizable and listable.
Biologists specializing in studies of particular animal species not only take photos, but also make drawings and write descriptions of behavior, to identify individuals within herds.
An optical examination, however, of the subject through drawings and photos (and if possible, direct observation), is more useful than a PC program. This involves identifying particular similarities and equalities that are not "identical". This is possible to do visually on a large (but limited) number of specimens. The human eye is the best computer.