How many species did Carl Linnaeus (senior) classify?
Indeed this is a bit of interesting history. Linnaeus was not a modest man, but he was also a prodigious contributor to biology. He made many editions of his two major works Species Plantarum (1753) and Systema Naturae published in 1759. Systema Naturae covered both plants and animals and had 12 editions, eventually with 3 volumes in several parts.
Linnaeus' sampling of species was not broad - he traveled to Lapland France, and England. His main experience was in botany and was able to look at samples in gardens which were a popular pursuit amongst wealthy hobbyists of the day and visited botanists in England and had samples from other continents. He had heard about chimpanzees, but it doesn't seem as if he ever saw one.
Wikipedia gives a final count of nearly 10,000 species including over 7000 plants, from the entries in his works. Linnaeus felt that there would be very few more discovered than 10,000 which turned out to be completely wrong. The Encyclopedia of Life has 1,316,775 entries today. This was probably perpetuated by the influence of Aristotelian thought, which persisted through Darwin's life, that species were only the result a higher reality creating animals attuned to a local climate and geography and so the same species would in the mountains of Scandinavia would be the same as the alpine regions of India say.