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I would like to learn about how the process of cloning works in nature - how are twins "created" after fertilization what genetic changes can occur in each of the twins.

Where should I start? What are some interesting books on the topic, as well as recent research papers (or just the most important research topics that I could use to start looking for more information)?

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A good starting point would be figuring out whether you want to study monozygotic or dizygotic twins. Monozygotic will produce genetically identical twins. Dizygotic twins are siblings who do not share a genome as there are two eggs involved. – MCM Jun 8 '13 at 22:04
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To learn about the process of how cloning works, you need to appreciate the underlying principles. A general bio textbook should suffice (most popular one is Alberts, where you should focus on chapter 21, but maybe read other chapters for background)

Nature Scitable is also a good source.

I'd discourage reading research papers at this stage, primary research paper are often very specialized, and reviews are aimed at other researchers in the field, that is unless you find one that is focused on communicating science to the public.

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