Lactulose is an osmotic laxative. This means it works by drawing water into the colon (i.e. it retains a lot of water with it) and hence softens your stool in cases of constipation. As you can imagine, this interferes with absorption of most drugs including antibiotics and even food. Neomycin is especially toxic to gut flora (as mentioned above) and if taken with lactulose, it will linger in your GI tract for even longer and kill more gut flora. Your gut flora is important in protecting you against other harmful bacteria through competition for food, nutrients, etc. If you kill your flora, you are allowing other harmful organisms a field day in your intestine and they will grow and cause a condition known as pseudomembranous colitis (commonly caused by clostridium difficile infection). Also neomycin is mentioned separately because it has been associated with this condition which can sometimes be fatal (toxic megacolon, GI perforation, severe diarrhoea, etc)
In summary, you shouldn't be taking other medication whilst you're constipated anyway (especially when taking lactulose) because they won't get absorbed and may make the constipation worse.