By "dream", I mean:
- Dreaming while sleeping.
- Dreaming about their future life while being awake.
Thank you in advance.
According to this Psychology Today blogpost, it is quite likely that animals can dream. Particularly mammals that according to the blogpost:
However, for your second question, I do not think it is at all possible to know what they are dreaming about (if they indeed do dream).
Dreams are simulations created by the brain in order to train us to cope with challenging situations. Most of the dreams present situations where the individual is confronted with challenges or risks he/she might face during the life. Evolutionary concept of dream suggests that its a way by which brain try to notify some risks and train us to invade through it. The evolutionary acceptance of dreams is due to the "threat simulation" feature it possess. By which an individual can gain advantage of several situations he/she confronts in life.
Yes they do. Studies suggests that animals can dream while sleeping, entire human dreams occur during the REM sleep period. Most of the mammals do have the REM sleep period and it suggests that they do dream in this time of sleep.
This link provides much more examples.
According to the studies of MIT,
Dreaming about their future life while being awake, good question. If they do so then it will be a contradiction to our long held view of animal thought process. Most of the animal thought process that we try to reveal is through the firing of particular areas in their brain with the association of certain hormones. By this process we can find that which all neural pathways are used while dreaming and which are not.
As we can find that animals also have dreams, then it is obvious that they could recollect it (some what vague) and can prepare mentally to face those particular situations. This doesn't mean that they do have plans about events coming for them in future, but researchers states that dreams are their only offline experience with those events. The memory of those dreams help them to ensure little advantage over those future events. While in the case of humans, we have a highly complex brain which is so good at simulating events by which we can plan our future, but other animals lack this complex structure(complex but not as much as ours), so they entirely rely on dreams for that purpose.
From the ScientificAmerican
Although the linked article doesn't look like they were talking about animals. But I wont purchase the article to check that...
As for your second question, I would say yes, when you would say, making a plan is equivalent to dream of the future. Crows are smarter than you think...
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