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My textbook doesn't do a very good job of pointing out what the differences between the two are. It basically mentions axons only in the same breath as the synapse (that synapses are the endings/tips of axons).

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This reference is a bit basic, but lists the functions and differences between axons and dendrites. Specifically, dendrites receive signals from other neurons, to the cell body; whereas, axons take signals away from the cell body (essentially 'input-output'). A diagram of the parts and the processes is below:

enter image description here

(Image source with additional information)

This Youtube tutorial is a nice visual description of both, and how they function within a neuron.

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Can you provide some details in your answer rather than just links? –  kmm Jun 30 '13 at 0:52
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@kmm is this acceptable? –  user3795 Jun 30 '13 at 1:02
    
no synapse.. hmm –  Lesbihonest Jun 30 '13 at 20:29
    
@Lesbihonest The synapses are just not labelled on the diagram, but are referred to in the links. –  user3795 Jun 30 '13 at 23:28

Dendrites of a critical neurons contain cytoplasm resembling that of the soma. They contain all cytoplasmic organelles except the cell nucleus and pigment granules. where as in axon, contains all the organelles of the soma except nucleus, missle granules and pigment granules

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