The study of the internal structure of organisms.

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Can defibrillation be done with a car battery?

Can you do successful defibrillation with a car battery? Is it POSSIBLE for this to work? Let's say you are stuck on a very remote place and something happens to someone... Moreover, can you jump ...
3
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1answer
22 views

What does it mean for muscles origins and insertions to be the other way around in the right than left limb?

Herbert Srebnik writes in Concepts in Anatomy: In the right limb, the muscle's origin is proximal to the joint and the insertion is distal to it. In the left limb, the muscle's origin is ...
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0answers
9 views

Do bears generally have sesamoid bones in their fore and hind feet?

I can't seem to find any information specifically (that shows photographic evidence) of whether bears (of any kind) have sesamoid bones in their feet. And whenever I read information that says that ...
3
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1answer
70 views

Does size matter?

As I compare the morphologic differences between mouse models and the human disease for which they are analogous, I have become interested in what difference interspecies size has on molecular ...
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2answers
109 views

Skull mystery on beach

The skull was found on a beach on the Sechelt inlet on Canada's pacific coast. A marine environment. What species is this skull from?
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2answers
66 views

Do nematodes have organ-level organisation?

Some introductory biology books state that nematodes have a pseudocoelom. So, they have a false body cavity. So, does it also mean that they have organ level body organisation?
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1answer
60 views

Explanation of the ‘cherry red spot' in Tay Sachs disease

In Tay Sachs disease, a hallmark symptom is a cherry red spot in the macula of the eye surrounded by a halo of white. I understand that the ganglion cells, which are higher in numbers around the ...
4
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1answer
96 views

Cross section through the right arm question

Is the largest drawn vein on first attached pictue v. brachialis or did they make a mistake and it's actually v. basilica? Picture 1: Cross section through the right arm (source: Thieme, General ...
3
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1answer
16 views

Is the thecal sac ectoderm?

The thecal sac, or dural sac, is the membranous sheath of dura mater that surrounds the spinal cord and the cauda equina. The thecal sac contains the cerebrospinal fluid in which the spinal cord ...
3
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1answer
43 views

Why are vertebrae, specifically, so important in classification?

A fundamental level of animal classification is the distinction between vertebrates and invertebrates. The vertebrata are, arguably, often classified as higher life forms than the invertebrata. But ...
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2answers
112 views

Does the hepatic portal system form capillary beds?

Does the hepatic portal system form capillary beds? If so, is the capillary bed coordinated with that of arterial capillaries? What review paper might I look in?
3
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0answers
40 views

How does glucose delivered intraperitoneal (i.p.) get into the peripheral circulation?

Intraperitoneal delivery of drugs or fluids is something that occurs much more frequently in veterinary medicine than clinical medicine. In veterinary medicine or scientific studies using animals, ...
2
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1answer
140 views

Anatomical differences between herbivores and omnivores [closed]

What are differences of herbivores vs omnivores? I do not mean dietary differences (obviously), but physical ones. E.g., afaik herbivores have a much longer digestive tract than carnivores; then ...
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0answers
26 views

What is the term for toes that pull together with an upstep?

I fairly recently learned the term digitigrade, to describe the anatomy of a creature that stands on its toes rather than on the flat of its foot, like cats and ...
4
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1answer
78 views

What causes the opaque green colour in Lepidoptera?

Link here to what I mean by 'opaque' colouration on the insect, the colour intensity remains constant despite changes in light intensity and angle (not shown by the picture but the moth exhibits this ...
2
votes
1answer
364 views

Examples of animals with 12-28 legs?

Many commonly known animals' limbs usually number between 0 and 10. For example, a non-exhaustive list: snakes have 0 Members of Bipedidae have 2 legs. Birds and humans have 2 legs (but 4 limbs) ...
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0answers
13 views

Does this habit present any harm? [closed]

Sometimes I am able to put one knee down on the floor, rest my weight on that knee, and then relax it in order to make the knee cap go up and "crack" the knee. I can do this with both knees, I think ...
5
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3answers
274 views

Symmetry of species [duplicate]

I've got a silly question, sorry for that. I know, that we probably have no the right answer and the current answer could be "that's evolution, external conditions". I'd like to speculate, why most of ...
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0answers
31 views

Why are belly buttons on the stomach (why does the umbilical cord end up attached to the stomach)?

Belly buttons are at the site where the umbilical cord was attached to us as we developed inside our mothers. The same is true for all placental mammals. Why are belly buttons on the stomach? Why ...
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0answers
28 views

What is the lack of nipples in male horses and mice? [duplicate]

do male mice and horses create nipples in embryonic period then lack the or Whether these structures(nipples) are created from scratch?? Thank you!
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0answers
30 views

Why do male rats and horses lack nipples? [duplicate]

I have read many articles about why male rats and horses lack nipples, however, I still don't understand why! Do male rats, mice, and horses have nipples in early embryonic life and then lose them?
2
votes
1answer
254 views

Why does the kidney of a cow have lobules, why the kidney of a human hasn't any?

The kidney of a cow has lobules, while the kidney of a human hasn't any. I can't think of any reason why it would be good for a kidney to have lobules. It would be good if the kidney needed to have a ...
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1answer
41 views

What is the role of gills in terrestrial Crustaceans?

Why do Crustaceans that live on land have maintained their gills? In aquatic species, the gills play a pivotal role in respiration, but terrestrial crustaceans have tracheal lungs. So why do they have ...
2
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0answers
53 views

Front versus back in animal anatomy [closed]

Throughout various species, there seems to be a clear distinction between the front and the back. The musculature of the front, when engaged, closes or curls up the body, protecting it, while the ...
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1answer
71 views

Is the prostate problem unique to humans?

In human males the urethra goes through the prostate rather than around it, which tends to create problems for older men as the prostate enlarges. Is this only a human problem or do other animals, ...
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0answers
20 views

Organ secretions

If an animal secrets an enzyme from an organ that is entirely dedicated for the same secretion, can one or cannot one just use the gene coding for that protein to obtain the protein in vitro. How much ...
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2answers
438 views

Why do snakes not have eyelids?

Why is it that snakes do not have eyelids? Is it due to that fact that they are not as evolved as we humans and other organisms that have eye lids, or is there any other significance behind it if ...
3
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1answer
100 views

Please identify organ

This is the gut area of an Eastern Grey Kangaroo taken of a property in the Southern Highlands of NSW, Australia. The top red organ appears to be the spleen but what is the elongated tubular organ ...
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33 views

Is lung size/shape a factor in long-continuous running of animals?

Apart from other factors, does lung shape/structure/size play any role in long-continuous running animals. Is there any similarity in lung structure between different long-continuous running species? ...
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5answers
4k views

Why are there no known animals with an odd number of legs?

In my 6th grade science book it is said that there are no three legged animals, and that no animal with an odd number of limbs exists. I checked Wikipedia and could confirm this: There are no ...
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0answers
29 views

How much force can connective tissue withstand?

I have been studying a 3D anatomy model. Based on visual observation, it doesn't look like the bones would be able to stabilize themselves at all without the connective tissue like ligaments. In the ...
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2answers
960 views

Why do adult insects have 6 legs?

Apparently, there is an advantage to having 6 legs in the insect world. What is that advantage, if anything? Why would such an advantage exist for insects, but not for other, larger land animals? ...
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0answers
20 views

What is the radius of the Ora Serrata and lens in rabbits?

I'm interesting in estimating the surface area of the hyaloid membrane connecting the vitreous and aqueous chambers. This is a crude estimate however i'm struggling to find parameter values for ...
4
votes
1answer
3k views

How does this headless fish still move?

There is a (VIDEO) on Facebook where the fish starts to flail around despite no heart or internal organs. What causes the fish to flail around the way it does? My theories: It is because of ...
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0answers
22 views

What is the permeability of proteins across the hyaloid membrane of vitreous to retina?

Does anyone know of any experimental work to test the permeability of the hyaloid membrane between the vitreous humour of the eye to the retina to proteins? Currently the largest molecule I can find ...
3
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2answers
406 views

How do other primates treat their fingernails?

Do all primates have to trim their fingernails in some way, or do some primates' fingernails wear off through natural use? Also, is constant nail growth common to all primates?
5
votes
1answer
306 views

Why did Opabinia have 5 eyes?

I recently read about a fossil called Opabinia. What intrigues me is that it had five eyes. I was under the impression that most features, such as eyes, ears and legs are always even-numbered, i.e., ...
2
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1answer
173 views

Does “squinting” make you concentrate better on a logic test?

We have all had those moments of intense concentration on some tough exam, perhaps a college test or whatever... Why is it that when we squint, it feels like we can focus and concentrate better on ...
6
votes
1answer
404 views

How can bats hear such high frequencies?

I attended a talk that glossed over some biology as it was talking about a certain protein. The speaker mentioned humans can hear up to, often less than 20kHz frequencies, whereas bats can hear up to ...
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1answer
35 views

is left brachiochephalic vein and left pulmonary artery is same?

I am reading about ligamentum arteriosum which connects the left pulmonary artery and descending aorta. But I am seeing that if any figure shows left brachiochephalic vein it does not show left ...
2
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0answers
56 views

Differing number of “things” in mammals [closed]

I'm not a biology expert, but I have often wondered about the following facts of life: All mammals have precisely 5 fingers on each of our 4 extremities. Granted, some may not be seen, but the bone ...
14
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1answer
2k views

Evolutionarily, why do male rats and horses lack nipples?

Developmentally male rats don't have nipples because (reddit) Testosterone release in the fetal male rat happens before the stage of mammogenesis where the teat is formed whereas other species ...
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0answers
40 views

Bolyerine Snakes maxillary bone, split?

How is the maxillary bone split in the Bolyerine Snakes described in T.H Frazzetta's "From Hopeful Monsters to Bolyerine Snakes?" In T. H. Frazzetta, "From Hopeful Monsters to Bolyerine Snakes?" He ...
0
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2answers
520 views

Horns in animals and birds [closed]

Are there any carnivores with horns (whether extinct or currently alive)? Do any flying creatures have horns? By horns I mean horn like structure.
2
votes
1answer
61 views

Serious question about a piece of meat

Does anyone know some scientific rigorous way to look at a slice of meat. I am not asking what kind of meat it is or which part of the animal it came from. I wonder what is the different lining on ...
5
votes
1answer
74 views

Stretching and compressing bones

The Young's modulus of elasticity when a bone is stretched is : 16×109 and when it is compressed, it is 9×109 N/m2. That means, change in length will be more if you compress a bone as compared to ...
2
votes
1answer
31 views

By what method do ants dissect and hold soil

Not sure if this is the correct stackexchange site - please migrate/advise as you see fit. I'm interested in the method by which ants "break off" a small amount of soil and then hold it in their jaws ...
3
votes
1answer
140 views

How do cats survive falling from great heights?

Among mammals, cats are able to land safely when falling from great heights. For example, when compared to dogs or humans they can survive drops from relative large heights. How do they manage? A ...
0
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1answer
54 views

Does the size or mass of a body affect the time it takes for rigor mortis to sets in?

Does the size or mass of a body affect the time it takes for rigor mortis to sets in? For example: compare a 300 pound man to 100 pound girl to 5 pound animal.
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1answer
317 views

Can humans live without their right atrium?

The right atrium is one of four chambers (two atria and two ventricles) in the hearts of mammals (including humans) and archosaurs (which include birds and crocodilians). It receives deoxygenated ...