Biologically-synthesized chemicals (or their derivatives) that cause growth suppression or death of bacteria. Other anti-microbials are often also considered under the class antibiotics these days.

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By what mechanism does penicillin resistance usually develop in Streptococcus pneumoniae?

There are three mechanisms: prevention of the interaction between antibiotic and the target PBP; modification of the binding of the antibiotic to the PBP; hydrolysis of the antibiotic by a ...