A protein produced by the B-cells of the immune system which binds to a particular antigen, a foreign substance to the body.

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ADCs: by what mechanism are antibodies internalised [on hold]

I read that ADCs (Antibody-Drug Conjugates) act by a -mab for a particular target being bonded to a cytotoxic compound. From my high-school-with-crayons knowledge of antibodies, however, one part of ...
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37 views

Why don't antibodies generally bind to food and drugs?

Are these excluded thru central tolerance? What if you ingested something with a unique molecular structure that you hadn't ingested before?
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37 views

How long do antibodies stay in our body? [on hold]

I've heard that when people diagnosed with Hashimoto's hypothyroidism are treated with oral thyroid replacement medication, their antibodies that acted against the thyroid hormones and attacked the ...
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14 views

My flow cytometry antibody won't reach saturation

I am staining human neutrophil populations (CD177) and then trying to get a different test target antibody to give a dose response to binding to this population. I have tried concentrations of the ...
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1answer
58 views

Is a variable domain in immunoglobulin's heavy chain different from the one in light chain?

I guess yes, there is difference in amino acid sequences of $V_L$ and $V_H$. And so we have 6 different complementarity determining regions (CDRs) per monomeric immunoglobulin as two heavy chains are ...
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26 views

Why every Ab-Ag complex doesn't lead to anaphylatoxic shock?

if we know the background of hypersensitivitoy type 3 then this question arises. every complex should lead to anaphaylatoxic shock which is not a true statement. so then how all complexes which ...
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66 views

How plasma cells switches secreting different Ig classes?

In Type 1 hypersensitivity how do B lymphocytes switch Ig classes, from synthesizing IgG to IgE? What is the mechanism? I studied multiple pathology books, it says the same as for IgG secreting ...
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1answer
33 views

What is the attacking mechanism of RF on IgG?

Rheumatoid Factor (RF) attacks Fc portion of Immunoglobulin G (IgG), I want to know the underlying mechanism at molecular level. Also, what type of bond or attachment is made by RF and Fc portion of ...
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57 views

Purpose of antibody wash

It is common practice after surface staining cells for flow cytometry analysis to wash the antibody out of solution before analyzing a sample. I have tried analysis with and without washing the ...
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29 views

Why a repeat wasp sting cause an anaphylaxis shock?

I understand that an anaphylaxis shock caused by a huge dose of histamine. But why the first sting does not cause an anaphylaxis shock like the second sting? As i think there may be a relevant between ...
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53 views

What is the efficacy of an Ebola antibody response

There is contradictory (~?) evidence in the literature that antibody responses against Ebola are effective in clearing the virus and protecting the patient. Some time ago, I wrote a bit about the ...
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35 views

How to validate the use of an anti-virus monoclonal antibody in IHC by spiking a fresh organ with infected cultured cells?

I have assessed the specificity of a particular monoclonal antibody against a virus by immunofluorescence. I'd like to further validate it by testing it by IHC. Therefore I'd like to infect cells in ...
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39 views

Why is the administration of exogenous Anti-D not harmful to the foetus?

Haemolytic disease of the newborn can result from Rhesus incompatibility in utero. In this disease a Rh-ve mother becomes exposed to the antigens of a Rh+ve foetus by fetomaternal haemorrhage causing ...
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2answers
260 views

Can you Transfer Cancer Between People via Saliva or other Bodily Fluids?

This may sound like a strange question. But could a Cancerous cell be transferred from one person to another from Oral contact e.g. Through Saliva, or other exchange of bodily fluids? I know that ...
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205 views

Antibodies stored in freezer instead of fridge

Someone from my lab put the box of antibodies in the freezer instead the fridge. Can I hope that they will still work?
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52 views

Can we use the HIV antibody test to detect HIV in newborns? [closed]

Adults and elder children can use HIV rapid test to test HIV infection. Can we use the HIV antibody test to detect HIV in newborns too?
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75 views

What are the typical values of probabilities for nonspecific binding to an antibody?

I'm physicist by training, so please excuse me if I don't use the proper terminology. I think there is a way to make a sensor that detects if a single antibody has caught something from the flow. So ...
5
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1answer
211 views

Are there any disadvantages to HRP conjugated PRIMARY antibodies

I need to detect a FLAG tagged protein on a western blot and have to order an antibody. I'm not expecting to see a massive amount of my protein. To keep analysis time to a minimum I am considering a ...
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2answers
279 views

Why can we use mouse-produced antibodies on mice tissues?

I have seen biologists use mouse grown primary antibodies in mouse tissue, and they've told me that if the blood is perfused well then there is no problem with this method. How does the secondary ...
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37 views

Are there anyother method under research for curing rabies? [duplicate]

Why is rabies incurable after onset of symptoms? Although we administer HRIG (lyssa virus antibody) to the patient, why doesn't it work after onset of symptoms? And are there any other successful ...
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94 views

Does antibody staining / immunolabeling block or inhibit protein function?

In dissociated live cells, does staining them with an antibody block the protein's function? I am sorting cells based on their expression of a few marker genes, and culturing them post-sort for ...
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1answer
154 views

C1q attachment to antibodies

After reading about complement pathway and the complement components, I was wondering, does the C1q component attach to the Fab fragment or to the Fc fragment? The pictures in Janeway's Immunobiology ...
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2answers
174 views

IgA complement activation

Recently, I have been reading Janeway's immunobiology and had a question on immunoglobin A. I read that IgA activates the complement pathway using the Fab fragment of the IgA. How does IgA do that? I ...
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1answer
101 views

Fab fragments of antibodies to fight viral infections

I was reading about Fab fragment and about using them to fight of viral infections. It seems that the Fab attaches to the viral receptors, which stops the viruses from attacking the cells. It seems ...
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252 views

Western blotting with multiple antibodies

Normally I wash/detect with one primary/secondary-HRP antibody pair, strip, then wash/detect with the other primary/secondary-HRP pair which works well. However, I recently started working with a ...
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47 views

How can site-directed mutagenesis be used to suppress the production of anti-antibodies?

In a previous post of mine, I asked how to supress the creation of anti-antibodies in vivo. In the answer, it was mentioned that site-directed mutagenesis could be used. Currently, I can't find mcuh ...
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94 views

How to inhibit formation of specific antibodies (to antisera)?

Is there a way to inhibit an antibody response to a specific antigen using immunosupression? I am interested in reducing the anti-antibody formation to animal antibodies such as murine antibodies in ...
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human anti-mouse antibody

I have heard about human anti-mouse antibodies (HAMAs) and read that HAMAs neutralize murine antibodies, therefore decreasing the effectiveness of those murine antibodies. Is this true that HAMAs ...
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411 views

Synthesis of immunoglobulin Fab fragments: Where can I learn about Fab?

I wanted to know the chemical reaction involved in Fab synthesis. I looked everywhere for it. No luck. I know I will find it here. All I know for now is: Fab is a monovalent fragment that is ...
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Complementarity Determining Regions (CDRs)

Complementarity determining regions (CDRs) are part of the variable domains in immunoglobulins (antibodies) and T cell receptors, generated by B-cells and T-cells respectively, where these molecules ...
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273 views

It is possible for person with AIDS be negative for HIV antibodies?

I'm just curious as there was a bit controversy around this topic. It is possible for person with AIDS be negative for HIV antibodies? As of 1989, the CDC reported that 5% of all U.S. AIDS patients ...
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340 views

What is a protective epitope?

What is a protective epitope? An epitope is basically a part of antigen. So does it mean that when the epitope combines with an antibody, it helps in the functioning of the antibody instead of going ...
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76 views

What attracts cells to: pathogens, professional antigen-presenting cells, and cells with an antigen on its MHC-1 protein?

I have a few questions in regards to attraction/stimulation in the immune system. What attracts leukocytes and antibodies to pathogens in the first place? What attracts CD4+ cells to professional ...
2
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1answer
104 views

Calibration curve for single radial immunodiffusion

When we draw a calibration curve for single radial immunodiffusion, the curve does not pass through origin. Instead, there is a y intercept. Why does that happen ? Shouldn't zero antigen give zero ...
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How can cells produce antibodies despite error-checking mechanisms in their genomes?

How can immune cells produce so many different kinds of antibodies with different variable regions if there are so many mechanisms inside the cells that try to keep the DNA sequence as constant as ...
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55 views

Why Rh conflict happen but no ABO conflicts?

I wonder why Rhesus conflict can happen during pregnancy and mother can make antibodies against Rh protein (I think the correct name is D protein), but it doesn't happen if mother has different ABO ...
3
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435 views

Dimerization of Immunoglobulin G

I would like to know the specific determinants for formation of IgG dimers. My understanding is the stem of the antibody is a homodimer of two heavy chains, covalently bonded through two disulfide ...
3
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1answer
512 views

What is the beneficial function of IgE antibody?

Dont tell me the "function" of IgE is to cause allergy ! In whatever texts I have seen it is written that IgE is important to cause allergies but what is the beneficial function of IgE ? Why was it ...
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113 views

How does HBeAg change to Anti-HBe in acute hepatitis

I am thinking this figure which can also be drawn like this How does HBeAg change to Anti-HBe? There are some triggers that stimulate Anti-HBe production after HBeAg level is done. I think ...
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309 views

Agglutination test using antibodies

Agglutination test Latex agglutination using bound antigens : by coating soluble (non - particulate ) antigens on to microscopic latex spheres, their reaction with a particular antibody can be ...
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67 views

Are there baby drinks closer to breast-milk?

Many women cannot or will not feed their children with breast-milk. It is my understanding breast-milk has many advantages over formula. Some psychological like oxytocin and some physiological like ...
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Can more than one antibody bind the same antigen

I'd like to clear something up about antibodies that I'm not sure I've understood in the articles I've read. Looking at concepts such as "affinity maturation", "monovalent antigens" and "polyvalent ...
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3answers
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Anti-antibodies for preventing transplant rejection

Transplanted organs from the donor are attacked by antibodies from the recepient. So can't we construct anti-antibodies and destroy specifically those antibodies which are causing the rejections ? ...
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456 views

Why are antibodies so expensive?

The amplification on vector transgenic microorganisms and the subsequent purification does not seem that complicated. Also, what are the processes that biotechnological industries follow, in detail, ...
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19 views

Are there any antigen electronic sensors? [closed]

Is it possible somehow to attach antibody to silicon or to other electronic component chemical, and have electronic detector of correspondent antigen? Does such devices exist?
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1k views

Transfer of antibodies in breast milk of humans

Why isn't the IgA secreted in breast milk digested due to proteases of the digestive system in the baby? Wikipedia says: The secretory component of sIgA protects the immunoglobulin from being ...
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872 views

Transfer of antibodies from mother to fetus

My questions: When does fetus begins to acquire antibodies from mother? Does it continue throughout the pregnancy? From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Passive_immunity This occurs around ...
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1answer
64 views

Antibody production in secondary immune response

Can IgG antibodies be produced in the secondary immune response without the help of T cells? Is the affinity of antibody for antigens higher during secondary immune response?
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The role of antibodies interacting with cancer

I'm learning about antibodies. As I understand it, antibodies detect stranger cells/bacterial/viruses by the molecules present in their membranes. In cancer cells, the cancer cell have produce some ...
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4answers
2k views

Antigen Antibody reactions during blood donation

A person wih blood group O is called a Universal Donor. Well, his plasma contains antibodies A and B. During blood donation, if blood group O is given to a person with blood group A (since blood group ...