A subdivision of microbiology dedicated to the study of bacteria.

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How Sex Evolved ? and when?

As I know evolution comes bit by bit mutation by mutation How sex evolved which requires a major change in at least two individuals one to become male and one to become female ? When that happened ...
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23 views

What is the film that covers the tongue?

What is the film that covers the tongue in the mornings, even after brushing the teeth and tongue the night before and why does it have color variations? Do the different colors mean anything?
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55 views

How can promoter binding sites be determined?

I have been trying to find out which sigma factor is responsible for the transcription of RNA polymerase subunits $\alpha$ (rpoA) and $\beta ^{\prime}$ (rpoC) in Bacillus subtilis. I would expect it ...
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116 views

Image Processing Suite for bacterial microscopy: Schnitzcells or MicrobeTracker?

I am looking to start doing some work tracking the size and growth of individual bacterial cells in the microscope. In order to analyze the images I need software that can segment the cells, ...
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17 views

How is bacterial plasma membrane made?

Eukaryotes have ER which manufactures plasma membrane of cells. How is prokaryotic plasma membrane made ? What is the pathway and which enzymes are involved ?
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49 views

Does antibacterial soap work chemically?

Normal soap requires scrubbing, does anti-bacterial soap require scrubbing too? Since it (I assume) works chemically, can I produce the same cleansing effect without lathering with soap and using ...
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56 views

How do a viruses or bacteria survive outside the body long enough to spread?

Say I cough on my table, then someone else touches it and picks up something I've got... how is it that these things can live outside the body, how long can they manage it, and how long is generally ...
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25 views

Correlating B-lactamase expression to absorbance

When penicillin-resistant bacteria are grown in liquid culture media, B -lactamase is secreted into the medium. The supernatant of such a medium can be assayed for B- lactamase activity. Culture ...
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66 views

Why do plasmids replicate on their own?

I know how plasmids can replicate independently of the main genome and know that they confer various properties to the bacteria and are useful in conjugation. My question is - what is the advantage ...
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120 views

What would cause E. coli to change from filamentous growth to normal growth?

In my lab we've observed a phenomenon in which a culture of E. coli is found to shift from normal rod growth to filamentous growth and then back to normal rod growth again several times over the ...
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142 views

Blast a sequence against multiple databases

I would like to BLASTP a list of protein sequences in fasta format against multiple protein databases. Since I'm only interested in the first hit of each database, it is possible that BLAST result ...
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22 views

Property of E.coli harboring F element

From Genetics by Ursula Goodenough E.coli harboring an F element are endowed with a number of phenotypic traits : 1.They are sensitive to infection by ssRNA phages and certain ssDNA phages. ...
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Functioning of EDTA

I know that EDTA chelates metal ions. It weakens bacterial cell wall and inactivates the DNases. What is the reason why it can do so ? I guess it can inactivate DNases by altering the ...
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42 views

Buy bacteria for experiment?

Where can I buy paracoccus denitrificans? I need it for an experiment. I cannot find online where I can purchase this.
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19 views

Functioning of BCG vaccine

I read (from Nature Volume507, S4–S7 (06 March 2014) : For reasons that are poorly understood, BCG protects only infants; it is ineffective in older children and adults. Its efficacy also ...
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3answers
70 views

How quickly is antibiotic resistance lost?

I would imagine the bacterial genome is highly conserved and limited in its space, but maybe I am wrong. If you were to take a strain of antibiotic resistant bacteria and kept them isolated, but fed ...
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1answer
52 views

Why bacteria produce light?

After seeing this video I am curious to know why the free living bacteria produce light. What advantage will they have ? Or is it just an "unintentional" result of one of their pathways ?
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30 views

College Bio Research: Bacteria found on computer keyboards. [closed]

I am a college students brainstorming ideas on different topics that may be appropriate for on-campus research. What I came up with and I would like to give it a try is analyze the different types of ...
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1answer
30 views

Bacterial Conjugation/Horizontal Gene Transfer — how does the plasmid exchange work?

So according to a PPT I'm reading, bacterial conjugation works by the two bacteria joining pili and exchanging plasmids. So how exactly do the plasmids get across the gap? If I understand this ...
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1answer
24 views

Do lysogenic viruses only infect bacteria?

In the video sent by my teacher on viruses, the example he used for lysogenic viruses was a bacteriophage infecting a bacteria. When he was describing how the genetic material was incorporated into ...
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31 views

Quorum Sensing in Vibrio cholerae

This is a figure summarising the quorum sensing mechanism in Vibrio cholerae. In this video by Bonnie Bassler, she explains how quorum sensing can be targeted to control infections. At 15:09 she ...
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Prepare Mueller-Hinton agar at home

I'm doing a self science project, it's easy if i have a lot of money to buy a Mueller-Hinton agar bottle from Ebay for about 110$ (include shipping cost). The main problem is it is very expensive for ...
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83 views

I don't wash my hands and never get sick. Any theories? [closed]

I have only been sick a few times in my life(I'm 21 and probably 3-4 times) and even when I am sick I don't feel that bad and I am over it within a day or two. My family has always given me slack for ...
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17 views

Correlating Ki values of pesticides to bacterial growth

Four pesticides P1 to P4 are reversible inhibitors of an enzyme E that is essential for the growth of a bacterium B. Their Ki values are given in the table below. Each of these four pesticides ...
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32 views

Replication of DNA in E. coli: what are DARS and RIDA?

I understand what is DnaA, its role in replication and the fact that it's only active when binding ATP. I don't understand what are DARS and RIDA and how they control the amount of DnaA-ATP:DnaA-ADP
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33 views

What is the maximum amount of different bacteria in the drinking water in Europe?

I am looking for a statistical amounts which are allowed. Some students say it is 0 for all bacteria, which I think is false. I found this USA source. I found there Total Coliforms (including fecal ...
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2answers
136 views

What are artifacts in microbiology?

What kind of objects can be qualified as artifacts? How do we distinguish such objects?
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2k views

How long can E. coli stocks be stored at -20°C?

I'm volunteering for a biohacker lab - biocurious in Sunnyvale. The have a pretty good set of equipment - gel boxes, incubators, but they don't have a -80°C freezer yet. I'd like to set up some ...
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683 views

What are the differences between G+ and G- bacteria?

The distinction between Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria is based upon the Gram staining method, that reflects the bacterial wall physical properties. However, this classification involves ...
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1answer
38 views

Why do peas change colour?

I am doing an experiment on preservation of peas. The first notable change to the peas over a period of one week is that they have changed colour from bright green to a dull colour... Why is this ...
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Is it possible for bacteria to acquire family-wide antibiotic resistance?

If there is bacteria, lets say Enterococci that is sensitive to: Amoxycillin-Clavulinic acid Ampicillin-Sulbactam Ofloxacin Ciprofloxacin Is it possible to ...
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65 views

Can antibiotic resistant bacteria compete with normal one in an antibiotic free environment?

The question is based on an intuition that antibiotic resistance can't come along. This mutation will probably make bacteria less tenacious. Is there any research how AR bacteria compete with normal ...
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72 views

Gene transfer between Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria?

How does transfer of genetic material occur between Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria?
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1k views

Why restriction enzymes cut (usually) at palindromic sequences?

Restriction enzymes usually cut only at palindromic sequences. Is there any specific reason for that ? Is there any advantage for bacteria if it cuts up virus at this type of sequences ?
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Does conjugation support gene selection?

I have already posted this on chat but haven't got any response. A recent question on group selection stimulated me to ask this here. QUESTIONS: Why should bacteria conjugate? If we consider that a ...
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Speciation and Phylogeny of Lactobacillus

The lactobacillus, also called Döderlein's bacillus is a genus of facultative aerobic bacteria. There are several species such as Lactobacillus acidophillus and Lactobacillus reuteri. I have several ...
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Is 1 g/l living biomass for a Biogas fermenter plausible?

A usual number for a healthy biogas fermenter is $10^9 - 10^{10}/mL$ Bacteria, 10-15% of which would be methanogenic archae. Exceptionally healthy fermenters have more total bacteria and up 25% ...
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120 views

List of all reported bacteria

I would like to know were to download a table file with all reported bacteria and its corresponding PHYLUM, CLASS, ORDER and FAMILY. Basically, its the same table than this one from GOLD genomes but ...
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60 views

When might an inhibitor of bacterial transformation be useful?

I am part of a project elucidating some structures that are required for bacterial transformation. We have the opportunity to screen inhibitors of the system to stop it from functioning. I am not a ...
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1answer
47 views

Why is Thermus aquaticus and Taq Pol stable?

What is the molecular basis of the stability of the bacterium Thermus aquaticus and the enzyme Taq Pol it produces ? I have tried googling this but did not get a good answer.
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How to get conservation of vaccine candidates between hundreds of bacterial strains?

We have identified vaccine candidates via an ex-vivo RNA-seq approach. Next step would be to perform conservation of these candidates (about 20) between multiple bacterial strains (about 200). I would ...
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Assay for Beta-galactosidase activity in single cell microscopy

I'd like to be able to measure the activity of $\beta$-galactosidase in living cells with simple optical (maybe fluorescence) microscopy. Ideally I'd like to do a minimum of genetic engineering, and ...
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1answer
76 views

Mesosome - does it exist?

This wikipedia page says that mesosomes are artifacts produced by chemical fixing techniques. Most of my textbooks still show a mesosome and describes it as having functions like - respiration, ...
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154 views

Alternatives to CFU plating for measuring number of viable cells?

I am hoping to measure growth rates of a bacterial culture in several growth conditions. I am concerned that these growth conditions may cause cell death, which would lead to a decreased ...
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Improving throughput of CFU plating?

In a separate question I've described my general experimental setup where I need to measure the number of live cells in a growing bacterial culture in a fairly rapid and high-throughput manner. In ...
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4answers
297 views

What is the advantage of restriction enzymes cutting only at specific sites?

Bacteriophages have sequences which often do not have specific sites for restriction enzymes of bacteria to cut at and so can attack the bacteria. Wouldn't it be better if bacteria had something ...
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3answers
12k views

What is the difference between an antibiotic and an antibacterial?

Concerning medicine, what are the differences between antibiotics and antibacterials?
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1answer
95 views

Whole genome amino acid composition tool?

I'm interested in a statistical tool to get bacterial codon usage at genomic level. Ideally, the tool should be flexible to analyse hundreds of bacterial genomes. I've looked in MeSH terms database ...
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2answers
150 views

How much natural genetic variation is there between bacteria of the same species?

There are lots of questions about how and why there is genetic variation between organisms of the same species, but I haven't been able to find a numerical value for the expected amount of genetic ...
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112 views

Why does beta-2-Thienylalanine inhibit bacterial growth?

I'm trying to obtain a better understanding of the Guthrie Test, which checks whether people have a disease called PKU. The Guthrie test uses bacteria to check for Phenylalanine (the amino acid) in ...