The study of chemistry within the scope of biology: the compounds that occur and the reactions involving them in living organisms.

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Meta-analysis for the Biochemistry of Water filtering systems? [on hold]

I am trying to find meta-analysis and US government's official websites about water filtering and recommendations. The selection of the system is dependent on the quality of the water. So you can ...
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1answer
18 views

Why is deficiency of thiamin characterized by brain malfunction [on hold]

Why is deficiency of thiamin characterized by brain malfunction.
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2answers
73 views

Can an organism process H₂O into H₂O₂?

In an answer to a recent question on Worldbuilding, I suggested that an organism convert $H_2O$ into $H_2O_2$. I suggested a few processes that yielded the desired final result ($2H_2O \rightarrow ...
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12 views

Bacterial/microbial metabolism of sucrose in fruit juices

While taking out the recycling this morning, I noticed that my old orange juice carton seemed to be inflated. Opening the cap relieved a lot of pressure built up inside the carton. I'm thinking that ...
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13 views

Substrate specificities of GPPS, FPPS and GGPPS (isoprenoid biosynthesis enzymes)

I have some questions related to isoprenoid synthesis enzymes. Does Geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase (GGPPS) contribute in Geranyl-Pyrophosphate (GPP), Farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) and ...
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2answers
45 views

Are fatty acids and glycerol lipids?

As far as I know, lipids are defined as biomolecules which are hydrophobic. Triglycerides are composed of fatty acids and glycerol and are considered lipids but, are fatty acids alone or glycerol ...
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2answers
67 views

Book Recommendations: GRE Subject Test In Biochemistry, Cell And Molecular Biology

There are probably a lot of really good answers that may vary significantly in terms of content. I'm looking for a set of books that I can read in preparation for the GRE Subject Test In ...
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1answer
19 views

Can Omega 3 Fatty Acids prevent chest pain in periodic Atrial Fibrillation?

It is debated if omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (N3PUFa) may be effective in preventing AF (atrial fibrillation), meta-analysis here. However, much less has been considered this: Do N3-PUFAs ...
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1answer
49 views

Basic question about multiplex PCR

Let's say I have a DNA sequence with the following structure: $$ 5' - N_n - S_1 - N_{1000} - S_2 - N_{1000} - S_3 - N_n - 3' $$ Here, the $N$s represent stretches of arbitrary sequence of the ...
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1answer
1k views

Ripening bananas artificially: What is the biological reason

I am a resident of the tropical island of Sri Lanka, and we have a strange traditional method to ripen our bananas quickly. What we do is this: We dig a pit in earth that is enough to put the whole ...
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2answers
57 views

Is there a difference between polarity and hydrophobicity?

From literature the two terms seem to be interchangeable when discussing protein domains and motifs. But biochemically, what are the specific differences between these two terms? For example what is ...
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1answer
30 views

Examples of genes involved in plastic responses

Adaptive plasticity involves sensing the environment and responding adaptively to it. Intuitively, I would think that this process may ask for a more or less complex genetic machinery of regulation of ...
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46 views

Tracking of oxygen molecules in glucose oxidation

For this reaction, found in typical biochemistry textbook: $C_6H_{12}O_6 + 6O_2 \to 6CO_2 + 6H_2O$ I am interested in where do the oxygen atoms of $6O_2$ go. I think they go to $6H_2O$, but this is ...
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1answer
20 views

Phospholipid movement in cell membranes

What causes phospholipids to flow so quickly in cell membranes? In Biology by Cambell et al. they state that a phospholipids can travel up to 2 micrometers per second. Is that a random movement or has ...
2
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2answers
136 views

Why would an Eadie-Hofstee Plot be non-linear?

Besides cooperativity between multiple active sites on an enzyme, what are the other reasons for the Eadie-Hofstee plot to be non-linear?
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1answer
50 views

How do the quantities of ATP formed during aerobic and anaerobic respiration compare? [closed]

How do the quantities of ATP formed during aerobic and anaerobic respiration compare?
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1answer
74 views

Identify the pink mold infecting refrigerated lemons [closed]

I made lemon juice 6 month ago. I just washed the lemon using brush and then cut them into pieces. Then I put one layer of lemon in the bottle followed by one layer of sugar Again one layer of lemon ...
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1answer
25 views

What are the reactions in the body that triggers dizziness after cigar(nicotine) smoking in non-smokers?

Suppose there is a person that has never used nicotine in any form in his/her life. Why does the person get dizzy after a few "shots" from a cigar(nicotine)? What's the difference between using other ...
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1answer
11 views

What enables azacitidine to incorporate into both DNA and RNA?

I did a mini-project on the drug azacitidine for my pharmacology class, and I learned that azacitidine has the ability to incorporate into both DNA and RNA. I think this is really unique because a ...
6
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2answers
244 views

HIV and effectiveness of inhibitor cocktail over single inhibitor

I'm looking for clarification on the answer to this question. It's in my biochemistry class but I figured this is more Biology than Chemistry, so I'm asking it here. The question is: One of the ...
2
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1answer
48 views

Is the activity of enzymes in the human body affected by the outer temperature?

I have to do a research about the enzymes in the human body and the things that affect them. I know that the body temperature affects the activity of enzyemes but I'd like to know if the outer ...
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1answer
17 views

Help me understand my membrane potential assignment

Epithelial with the ability to transport NaCl is bathed in an isotonic salt solution with these values (in mM): 136 Na, 6 K, 140 Cl. The intracellular concentrations are: 45 Na, 100 K, 13 Cl. The ...
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3answers
150 views

How does protein denaturation work?

I was wondering how protein denaturation works. Are there covalent bonds, such as disulfide bridges involved, or is it based purely on non-covalent bonds such as hydrogen bonds? Why is denaturation ...
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2answers
53 views

How does high-fidelity of DNA replication depend on the formation of hydrogen bonds?

Replication has an error rate of less than 1 in 100 million. DNA polymerase forms H-bond with the H-bond acceptor atoms in the minor groove. <-- enhance fidelity here? Binding of the triphosphate ...
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1answer
36 views

Book-recommendation: Biochemistry

I need to have a book which covers following topics two may also be fine: (a) Structure and role of carbohydrates, fats, fatty acids and cholesterol, proteins and amino-acids, nucleic acids. ...
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1answer
32 views

Understanding intra and extracelullar concentrations (membrane potential)

I have 4 question (not homework) What happens to the cells membrane potential if: a) Na+ outside rises by 40mM b) K+ inside rises by 10mM c) K+ outside rises by 10mM d) A- (impermeable ion) ...
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21 views

Is there a known glucosepane cross-link breaker?

I read the following on wikipedia: There is, however, no agent known that can break down the most common AGE, glucosepane, which appears 10 to 1,000 times more common in human tissue than any ...
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1answer
52 views

Why is the ebola virus so intense now?

So i'm looking into the ebola crisis and it seems the death toll is really getting crazy. I understand that it's a cytomegalovirus and that it basically overwhelms the immune system due to it's size ...
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1answer
25 views

Why is coconut oil healthier when it has so much saturated fat?

I noticed that coconut oil has ~96% saturated fat, and I was under the assumption that saturated fats = bad for health. Why is it that coconut oil is healthier to alternatives with much less ...
2
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1answer
65 views

What is the result of meiosis?

Is the result of meiosis ONLY the sex gametes (male and female) which later meet to form a somatic cell? Sometimes I feel as if my book is hinting towards meiosis is the process where sperm cells meet ...
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1answer
99 views

Preservation of human tissue

At my med school we have human samples (body parts, organs, etc.) They are soaked in some sort of solution for long term storage. I'm quite sure that it's not formaldehyde as that would be really ...
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17 views

Formaldehyde turns plantar region of feet red?

I'm a freshman med student and I've noticed that on all the feet (and hands) of deceased people that I've worked with, the bottom of the feet always turns red and also the inside of the palm? Why is ...
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2answers
447 views

Are there any multicellular forms of life which exist without consuming other forms of life in some manner?

The title is the question. If additional specificity is needed I will add clarification here. Are there any multicellular forms of life which exist without requiring the consumption (destruction) of ...
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1answer
50 views

NADH inhibits gluconeogenesis?

I was told in a physiology lecture that alcohol inhibits gluconeogenesis because 'NADH produced from ethanol catabolism leads to product inhibition'. But is NADH not a reactant coenzyme of ...
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1answer
42 views

All or nothing phenomena

We know that an action potential is produced by an active cell membrane when the stimulus reaches a certain threshold. When it does, an action potential fires, and when it doesn't, nothing happens. ...
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1answer
25 views

How does fluorouracil inhibit pyrimidine synthesis?

I was reading in my pharmacology textbook about fluorouracil, and my book mentioned that fluorouracil is an antimetabolite whose function is to inhibit pyrimidine synthesis. However, I was curious to ...
4
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1answer
183 views

How many RNA-binding proteins can simultaneously bind on a single mRNA?

Typically, how many RNA-binding proteins can simultaneously bind to a single mRNA? Or said differently, how many "binding sites" does an mRNA have? What order of magnitude? I am interested in RNA ...
2
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1answer
40 views

PSI-BLAST website algorithm parameters

http://blast.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Blast.cgi In this website, when I want to apply the psi-blast algorithm on a sequence, under the section of algorithm parameters , what does PSI-BLAST threshold mean? ...
4
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1answer
39 views

protein-binding sRNAs

I am actually a computational biologist, pardon me if my question description is a bit off-note, my curiosity is driving me on A bit of background and context: In bacteria, a regulatory protein ...
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1answer
37 views

Epitope annotated protein

What is epitope annotted protein?? The book from which I got this term is : http://www.springer.com/biomed/immunology/book/978-1-4939-1114-1
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17 views

Sequence based method for prediction of continuous B cell epitope

What is Sequence based method for prediction of continuous B cell epitope? What is the algorithm/procedure of this method? Can someone please explain this to me in simple language?
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1answer
17 views

Are the cpli and ctli tests time senstive(i.e. is it needed to test right away in order to get accurate results)?

I'm sending the blood samples to a lab and this takes some time until the actual testing. Some information on the tests. TLI : ...
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2answers
60 views

Are triglycerides fat?

I have a quick question: Are triglycerides essentially what we call "fats"? I've tried reading up on it but there seems to be some conflicting information. Thank you.
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1answer
47 views

What are the ways to test for protein in the canine urine?

I know that one way is to use the reagent sticks and the refractometer, but this is inaccurate. Is protein distinguishable when using a microscope? Is it time sensitive(i.e. have to test it right ...
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1answer
69 views

Where do the electrons and protons formed from biological reactions go?

In a reaction like disulphide bond formation protons and electrons are released. These particles are presumably damaging in high levels. What systems are in place to prevent a build up of electrons ...
3
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1answer
42 views

How can I determine the purity of cells isolated from rat brains if I cannot use FACS, Immunohistochemistry or SEM anaysis?

Please help. I know how to isolate the different cells (astrocytes, other glial cells, neurons and synaptosomes) from brain tissue using a Ficoll-based separation but how do I determine the purity of ...
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16 views

Immunomic Microarray

"One can measure two or more signals simultaneously determined by a single feature, i.e., epitope in immunomic microarray DNA microarrays measure one response value for each gene per sample; that ...
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2answers
64 views

peptide MHC microarray

"The recent technology is peptide–MHC microarray or artificial antigen-presenting chip. In this technique, recombinant peptide–MHC complexes and co-stimulatory molecules are immobilized on a ...
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1answer
48 views

What is the physiological difference between cortisone and cortisol?

There is only hydrogen bond different. Cortisol is synthesized by our body, while cortisone is given to the patient. Why you cannot give cortisol directly to the patient? I think the reason is ...
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recombinant peptide MHC complex

What is recombinant peptide-MHC complex??? Recombinant DNA means "to bring together genetic material from multiple sources, creating sequences that would not otherwise be found in biological ...