The study of chemistry within the scope of biology: the compounds that occur and the reactions involving them in living organisms.

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Vitamin D oral intake, transportation and absorption

Several factors affecting vitamin D and its active form absorption and storage acidity of stomach (not significant effect) cytopathic effects of viruses cytopathic effects of bacteria where the ...
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Is life in a supercritical fluid possible?

Someone claimed that the dinosaurs could only live because back then athmospheric density was around 650 kg/m³, providing some buyoncy, this claim is checked on Skeptics SE. The claim itself is beside ...
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37 views

Nearly Exhaustive List for Cholesterol Pathways

I have run across an interesting case that is similar to only two others I've encountered. What makes it interesting is the combination of undetectable (under normal testing conditions, can elaborate ...
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41 views

Ferredoxin synthesis pathways

I have been thinking about some alternative CO₂ fixation pathways. As almost all of them include ferredoxin reduction I started to wonder where does the ferredoxin comes from. I could not find any of ...
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76 views

Osmosis - occurring in both ways?

So I did a prac to identify the osmotic potential of potato tuber cells. There were 5 test tubes with different concentrations of sucrose (0M,0.25M,0.5M,0.75M,1M); a small slice of potato was placed ...
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59 views

What is the biochemical pathway of fluoride?

Fluoride is a common active ingredient in tooth paste to prevent dental caries. It is also added or removed from the water supply in some communities for the same reason, but in children only. My ...
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48 views

Why does the ovum prefers to be arrested at metaphase 2 of meosis before fertilization? What is the possible advantage of this process?

Why does the human ovum prefers to be arrested at metaphase 2 of meosis before fertilization? What is the possible advantage of this process??Please help me with it.
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61 views

What are the ingredients of Pheromone Trap using for controlling Fruit flies of cucumber?

Pheromone Traps are used for fruit fly control. But I have no idea which ingredients or chemicals are used for preparing Pheromone trap
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49 views

Is an antivenom venomous?

What happens when someone takes an anti-venom for an animal they weren't bit by, either for incorrect identification of the animal they were bit by or if they weren't bit at all? I am looking for the ...
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59 views

Why is a nicotinamide-tryptophan combination used to treat affective episodes in a few older clinical trials?

At least one of the journal articles that reported on such clinical trials allured to the nicotinamide-tryptophan pathway that I assume must be related to the metabolism of tryptophan into serotonin ...
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60 views

When a Lysosome's bonding sites all get bonded to, what is the most resource and energy efficient way to handle the used Lysosome?

Let's say a Lysosome that bonds to a hazardous material to neutralize it has all bonding sites used up. would it be more safe / efficient to excrete the entire Lysosome / hazardous material molecule ...
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56 views

Why is water a polar molecule? [closed]

Also, what is the definition of polar in this case? (9th Grade) Does it have to do with the bonds it makes?
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alpha tubulin molecular weight problem

Is there any academic reference that shows α-tubulin is around 50-55 kDa? The only thing I found is some data sheets from companies. I need the real reference.
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39 views

Taste of salt water

I had a question relating to chemistry and biology, so please tell me if this is suited better for the Chemistry website. My question was, if water dissolves salt by separating the two ions, the Na+ ...
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130 views

Is Hydrogen gas present in biogas, and does it spontaneously ignite?

Is Hydrogen gas present in biogas? As it is highly inflammable, may it ignite the other gases like methane?
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1answer
24 views

Binding of Multivalent Antibody to mutiple epitopes?

A multivalent antibody molecule such as Immunoglobulin M Immunoglobulin A etc bind to more than one antigens or epitopes but I am confused about that wheather these multivalent antibodies bind to ...
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1answer
23 views

Can the same protein be represented by primary,secondary,tertiary structure? [closed]

As my book says: Protein can be represented by 4 structures. The primary structure represents the main chain and positions of amino acid residues. But actually, protein is not a rod but rather a ...
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1answer
36 views

Can Omega 3 Fatty Acids prevent chest pain in periodic Atrial Fibrillation?

It is debated if omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (N3PUFa) may be effective in preventing AF (atrial fibrillation), meta-analysis here. However, much less has been considered this: Do N3-PUFAs ...
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36 views

About molecules and their shape

When a molecule is being used in some biochemical process it has a certain 3-d structure. Is this maintained throughout it's usage or can one specific molecule change it's 3-d shape while it is being ...
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132 views

Pathway mediates nitroglycerin-induced relief from angina pectoris [closed]

what kind of Pathway mediates nitroglycerin-induced relief from angina pectoris,please provide some idea...
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379 views

Why do living organisms replicate itself or procreate

Why do living organisms spontaneously replicate itself or "procreate" (my understanding is that it does). From a uni-cellular and micro-organism point of view. Is there some sort of stimulant in the ...
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33 views

How much mass does a person lose in a day through breathing and perspiration?

Water and carbon are lost through perspiration and breathing. How much mass is lost in this way in a single day for a typical person?
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1answer
22 views

How is oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange mediated by hemoglobin? [closed]

Oxygen is transferred by hemoglobin from the lungs to tissues, while carbon dioxide is transferred by hemoglobin from tissues to lungs. How is this regulated bidirectional transfer mediated?
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1answer
38 views

Epitope annotated protein

What is epitope annotted protein?? The book from which I got this term is : http://www.springer.com/biomed/immunology/book/978-1-4939-1114-1
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37 views

Immunomic Microarray

"One can measure two or more signals simultaneously determined by a single feature, i.e., epitope in immunomic microarray DNA microarrays measure one response value for each gene per sample; that ...
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To understand Second messenger signalling in I/c and E/c

I found this picture in my study materials. I think it is too schematic and ignores the big pictures. I think the thing connected to the hormone is receptor. The second messanger is then connected ...
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1answer
49 views

Identifying mutations in a yeast strain

Cells of a triple-mutant yeast strain (leu- his- trp-) were spread either on minimal medium or on minimal medium supplemented with various combinations of histidine, leucine, or tryptophan. The ...
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96 views

Lizards are sometimes called cold-blooded because they depend on their surrounding temperatures to keep them warm.

Predict how the composition of the cell membrane of a lizard might change from winter to summer. Justify predictions. Can someone please help me figure this out. Does it have to do with fluidity?
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60 views

Some question about materials for PCR

I'm planning to order oligo, polymerase, nucleotide, buffer for my first diy PCR experiment (now I have nothing), so I have some questions. How and how long I can storage them? I have only a fridge ...
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76 views

What nutritious insects exist to farm that require the least attention?

What nutritious insects exist to farm that require the least attention? I'm looking to automate simply, in a self regulating way. Edit: To add detail, I imagine the insects would live densely in a ...
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1answer
477 views

Is breathing in deodorant fumes dangerous for my brain?

I noticed that I sometimes get dizzy when I accidentaly breathe in too much Axe. Also, I find the smell of alchohol rich deodorants quite unpleasant. But, I was wondering, is it actually dangerous? ...
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41 views

What is the charge on oligonucleotide 5' pGpGpApCpT 3' at pH 7.00?

What is the charge on the nucleotide 5'pGpGpApCpT 3' @ pH 7.00? I thought adenine has 1 NH group and Guanine has NH and ...
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1answer
60 views

What is the exact chemical composition of human body? [duplicate]

I've just watched Breaking Bad Season 01 Episode 03. In that Walter gives the chemical composition of human body. The conversation is as follows Walter White: Let's break it down. Hydrogen. What ...
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1answer
35 views

Feedback affecting myocyte metabolism in humans

I understand that there are several reserves available to muscle that can be tapped for ATP, and that each reserve is being used to some degree at all times. Are these reaction rates purely due to ...
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409 views

Converting unit/mg or unit/ml into ng/ml, or vice-versa

I am working with the enzyme Cu/Zn Superoxide (SOD1) and i am quantifying them in ng/ml. However, most past studies has SOD1 quantified in unit/mg or unit/ml, and i need to compare the SOD1 level of ...
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208 views

Calcium for Humans: Supplements vs Fortified Sources

I am intolerant to meat and milk products, but purely natural foods don't contain enough calcium for the Recommended Daily Intake. Links 2 to 4 (but NOT 1) avouch a correlation between calcium ...
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1answer
70 views

Why to choose a grammar from a lot of grammars that can describe structure of proteins? [closed]

Why do we choose a grammar from a lot of grammars that can describe structure of proteins? Usually, there are a lot of (maybe infinite) grammars that can describe one language. Why do we choose a ...
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151 views

Why not produce protein based on condensation reaction?

I'm fairly new learning about protein. As I know protein can be synthesis by condensation reaction. And the current method to produce protein is purify them from an organism. So why not produce ...
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146 views

How do you remove DNA/RNA from plastics?

I want to know how to make plastic containers free of DNA & RNA? this is just for knowledge
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366 views

Definition of Dye- Reduction Test?

Can some one give a simple explanation or definition on what a dye-reduction test is.
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Tm and protein delta H [closed]

we have 2 types of protein , one of them with Tm: x and another one with Tm: x+y but once with lower Tm has higher delta H and another one with higher Tm has lower delta H . how it could be possible?
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28 views

How to measure concentrations of different metals from the environment?

Suppose that different kind of metals and chemicals (e.g. magnesium, sodium, copper) got transmitted to environment e.g. as a cause of an accident. How would measure the levels of those metals and ...
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To Study Interactions of two molecules in PubChem

Assume you have two substances Diosminum / Hesperidinum. The former strengthens vascular walls. The latter has role in some glycoside biosynthesis. From Biochemistry, I recall that glycodises have ...
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Substrate specificities of GPPS, FPPS and GGPPS (isoprenoid biosynthesis enzymes)

I have some questions related to isoprenoid synthesis enzymes. Does Geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase (GGPPS) contribute in Geranyl-Pyrophosphate (GPP), Farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) and ...
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1answer
43 views

Book-recommendation: Biochemistry

I need to have a book which covers following topics two may also be fine: (a) Structure and role of carbohydrates, fats, fatty acids and cholesterol, proteins and amino-acids, nucleic acids. ...
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Formaldehyde turns plantar region of feet red?

I'm a freshman med student and I've noticed that on all the feet (and hands) of deceased people that I've worked with, the bottom of the feet always turns red and also the inside of the palm? Why is ...
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Sequence based method for prediction of continuous B cell epitope

What is Sequence based method for prediction of continuous B cell epitope? What is the algorithm/procedure of this method? Can someone please explain this to me in simple language?
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25 views

MHC restricted peptide

What is an MHC restricted peptide? "MHC-restricted antigen recognition, or MHC restriction, refers to the fact that a given T cell will recognize a peptide antigen only when it is bound to a host ...
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39 views

What chemical form of vitamin A is in chicken's egg yolk?

After doing some existing background research I am confused as to exactly what, in an unfertilised chicken egg's yolk, offers what we intake as 'Vitamin A' upon eating it. Plants typically produce ...
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Few innervations to blood sugar regulation

Assume you have a case of young female where the intake of 75 grams of pure sugar leads to a rapid peak of blood glucose level (within seconds) plateau phase with very steady blood glucose level ...