The study of chemistry within the scope of biology: the compounds that occur and the reactions involving them in living organisms.

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Zinc and brewer's yeast

I'm hoping for some information relating to yeast nutrition (specifically Saccharomyces cerevisea) in beer fermentation. Zinc is well-known to be necessary for yeast cultures to perform successful ...
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62 views

How does estrogen influence collagen synthesis?

Through what mechanisms does estrogen interact with collagen synthesis? Especially in the context of elevated estrogen levels and genesis of purpura simplex .
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19 views

Which biosynthetic pathways take place in the plastid and were are they located?

I know that the isoprenoid, jasmonate, glucosinolate, fatty acids, chlorophyll, starch, and aromatic amino acid syntheses are located in the plastid. But I don't know if they are located in the ...
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1answer
57 views

Is it possible that a set of functionally related proteins in a pathway fulfill different functions? [closed]

Could it be that a given pathway of enzymes (or proteins in general) may fulfill different purposes in a cell by for shifting partners? Say protein A activates B, B activates C and C has a specific ...
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85 views

Can diseases be transmitted wirelessly? [closed]

According to the recent research about Electromagnetic Signals from Bacterial DNA (A. Widom, J. Swain, Y. N. Srivastava, S. Sivasubramanian) it seems there is a possibility of a "wireless" version of ...
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45 views

Fatty Acid Synthesis of Fats Longs than 16 C

I understand that the human body when performing Fatty Acid Synthesis can synthesize only until C16 (palmitate). However the ER has desaturases and elongases. I know that desaturases are used to add ...
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43 views

Isoprene and Acrolein emissions of wood burning, insect burning and smoldering tobacco cigarette [closed]

I'd like to identify what makes a fume more or less toxic, above all those from commonly smoked organic stuff: tobacco, cannabis, comparatively to less common ones. For that, we can focus on 2 gas ...
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1answer
58 views

What is inside IDL (intermediate density lipoproteïn)?

I am studying about the endogene lipidcycle in the human body and I know that VLDL (very low density lipoproteïn) is made in the liver and that it contains triglycerides and cholesterol from your food ...
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76 views

What is the biochemical pathway of fluoride?

Fluoride is a common active ingredient in tooth paste to prevent dental caries. It is also added or removed from the water supply in some communities for the same reason, but in children only. My ...
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69 views

What are the ingredients of Pheromone Trap using for controlling Fruit flies of cucumber?

Pheromone Traps are used for fruit fly control. But I have no idea which ingredients or chemicals are used for preparing Pheromone trap
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57 views

Is an antivenom venomous?

What happens when someone takes an anti-venom for an animal they weren't bit by, either for incorrect identification of the animal they were bit by or if they weren't bit at all? I am looking for the ...
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1answer
60 views

What Biology topics are linked to the Nitrogen Cycle? [closed]

What other educational topics are linked to the Nitrogen Cycle? I am a Science teacher, and I need to organise my lessons. Thanks!
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70 views

Why is a nicotinamide-tryptophan combination used to treat affective episodes in a few older clinical trials?

At least one of the journal articles that reported on such clinical trials allured to the nicotinamide-tryptophan pathway that I assume must be related to the metabolism of tryptophan into serotonin ...
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174 views

What tests can be performed to test the purity and quality of the raw peptide HCG (Human Chorionic Gonadotropin)

What tests could be run to test the purity and type of HCG? We are looking to purchase HCG from China but the purity and quality varies between labs, we are able to receive samples of the raw peptide ...
2
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1answer
145 views

What's the difference between Cytoplasmic pool and Granular storage pool?

What's the difference between Cytoplasmic pool and Granular storage pool when speaking about neurotransmitters and synaptic cleft. I encountered this here: Amphetamine’s mechanism of action thus ...
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1answer
668 views

Water potential in plants?

The concept of water potential in plants tries (and succeeds) to explain various movement and transports in plants. I have learnt that it can be though of being composed of various components like the ...
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227 views

Can Pfx polymerase add only one 3' A overhang?

I am trying to clone a PCR product that was amplified using Pfx polymerase into pGemT vector. I had to A-tail the PCR product using Taq polymerase since Pfx only generates blunt end products. My ...
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2answers
1k views

How much vanilla will kill a person?

I received a gift that is a jug of Pure Mexican Vanilla. Having never dealt with large quantities of vanilla, it made me curious as to what would happen if a person had too much vanilla. I understand ...
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2answers
307 views

How are proteins formed?

Somewhere, I have read that we need to consume proteins to make amino acids to make new proteins. What does it suggest? How do we make proteins from proteins?
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115 views

Functioning of EDTA

I know that EDTA chelates metal ions. It weakens bacterial cell wall and inactivates the DNases. What is the reason why it can do so ? I guess it can inactivate DNases by altering the ...
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2answers
30 views

How does a smoker's finger or mustache get yellowish by nicotine?

Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable death around the world.$\ce{^1}$ The stain is considered as a "tell-tale" sign for identifying smokers. Multiple materials stated that it's due to ...
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2answers
101 views

What is the importance of urea in mass spectrometry?

What is the importance of urea in mass spectrometry? We use 8M urea to FASP our proteins prior to mass spectrometry. What is the significance of using 8M urea? and how does it affect the proteins?
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1answer
148 views

Molecules and human memory

Has it been demonstrated that the memory of human brain is just connections between neurons, not "long" molecules such as RNA or proteins?
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150 views

Finding a easy and cheap method for dyeing dNTP

I want to measure OD to know the concentration of dNTP. Any idea for dyeing dNTP at cheapest price and easiest way ?
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2answers
77 views

Why do many DNA solutions contain additional compounds?

DNA solubility data in only water is scarce. A previous question asked for a quantification of DNA solubility in water. It seemed like it would be easily answerable, however isn't quite that simple ...
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1answer
103 views

How does salinity affect the bonds of an enzyme?

According to my textbook, "Too much or too little salt can interfere with the hydrogen bonds that hold an enzyme in its three-dimensional shape". I know that NaCl is held together by an ionic bond, ...
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2answers
78 views

Are fatty acids and glycerol lipids?

As far as I know, lipids are defined as biomolecules which are hydrophobic. Triglycerides are composed of fatty acids and glycerol and are considered lipids but, are fatty acids alone or glycerol ...
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77 views

How does high-fidelity of DNA replication depend on the formation of hydrogen bonds?

Replication has an error rate of less than 1 in 100 million. DNA polymerase forms H-bond with the H-bond acceptor atoms in the minor groove. <-- enhance fidelity here? Binding of the triphosphate ...
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1answer
66 views

How does fluorouracil inhibit pyrimidine synthesis?

I was reading in my pharmacology textbook about fluorouracil, and my book mentioned that fluorouracil is an antimetabolite whose function is to inhibit pyrimidine synthesis. However, I was curious to ...
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2answers
74 views

Manufacturing of Bio Molecules [closed]

Can we Manufacture bio molecules say e.g. the simplest Sugar, C12,H22,O11 the way we do with any other mechanical component. So, we know all about the Structure and arrangement of Atoms in Sugar - so ...
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1answer
153 views

Transverse diffusion of lipids in red blood cells

The membrane of a human erythrocyte has polarity: Phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylserine are predominantly on the inner side. Phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin are predominantly on the ...
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2answers
404 views

Does osmosis occur when we have two different substances?

Assume that we have a semi-permeable membrane with water on both sides. First, straightforward, case: On the right side, we have a concentration of the substance A, and on the left side, we have pure ...
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2answers
438 views

PEG-silane treatment: why incubate for 18 hours at 60 degrees Celsius?

I am conducting a biochemistry-related experiment and I have been unable to understand a step which is commonly performed. My aim in this step is to apply a PEG (Polyethylene glycol) silane layer. ...
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1answer
205 views

Which concentration of BSA is recommended for dynamic light scattering experiments?

What is the recommended concentration of BSA to be mixed with water so as to prepare a very dilute solution in order to clearly study the intensity-intensity correlation with single scattering ? I ...
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1answer
69 views

Examples of how the presence or absence 2'-hydroxyl groups influence physicochemical properties of DNA and RNA

I know, for instance, that RNA is much more succetible to alkaline hydrolysis than DNA and this difference is determined by the presence of 2'-hydroxyl group in ribose. I have also heard that "DNA is ...
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1answer
44 views

Anesthetics, specifically inhaled anesthetics

I have had a look at previous inhaled anesthetics and many of them appear to be fluorocarbons. What could be the mechanism behind fluorine's anesthetic properties? Is it the specific bonding pattern ...
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1answer
43 views

Clonidine's adrenonergic nature?

I am little confused here. I used the term adrenoagonist and sympatholytic to describe the compound. However, my teacher says that the correct term here is adrenomimetic -term. My understanding of ...
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2answers
1k views

Book Recommendations: GRE Subject Test In Biochemistry, Cell And Molecular Biology

There are probably a lot of really good answers that may vary significantly in terms of content. I'm looking for a set of books that I can read in preparation for the GRE Subject Test In ...
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1answer
76 views

How do the quantities of ATP formed during aerobic and anaerobic respiration compare? [closed]

How do the quantities of ATP formed during aerobic and anaerobic respiration compare?
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1answer
104 views

Preservation of human tissue

At my med school we have human samples (body parts, organs, etc.) They are soaked in some sort of solution for long term storage. I'm quite sure that it's not formaldehyde as that would be really ...
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2answers
66 views

Are triglycerides fat?

I have a quick question: Are triglycerides essentially what we call "fats"? I've tried reading up on it but there seems to be some conflicting information. Thank you.
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1answer
54 views

Why is lead dangerous? [closed]

Lead is known to be bad for your health for a long time, but I can't find a explanation why is it so. In school they teach that heavy metals are poisonous, and they are trapped inside our bodies. I ...
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1answer
37 views

Is the sense for salt depending on the electrolyte level in our body?

I often noticed, after (heavy) physical activity like cycling, running, swimming or working an isotonic drink (to recover the electrolyte level) tastes less "salty" compared to when drinking it before ...
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2answers
147 views

What is most simple eukaryotic genome?

Expressed in number of Base Pairs or Bytes, about how large is the simplest eukaryotic genome? How much of this is 'junk-DNA' (non-coding)?
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2answers
201 views

Can excessive carbonated drink consumption lead to elevated red blood cell levels?

I've recently had a blood test and the results displayed elevated levels of erythrocytes as well as hemoglobin. (As a result my hematocrit levels were also above average) At my workplace there is a ...
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1answer
85 views

Diffusion of FAD+

Why is NAD+ free to diffuse within the mitochondrion whereas FAD+ is not ? What biochemical properties cause this difference ?
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1answer
329 views

Calcium for Humans: Supplements vs Fortified Sources

I am intolerant to meat and milk products, but purely natural foods don't contain enough calcium for the Recommended Daily Intake. Links 2 to 4 (but NOT 1) avouch a correlation between calcium ...
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1answer
66 views

Breaking of fats

There is a question I encountered. Why is fat harder to digest ? A) It has ester bonds. B) It is not easily soluble in water. Which is the most appropriate answer?
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1answer
137 views

Chemical structure prediction

I'd like to do chemical structure prediction using a known molecule formulas. I'm familiar with de novo protein structure prediction, but are there any programs which will go from formula to structure ...
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2answers
159 views

Plants without bacteria? is it theoretically possible?

I know from school, that all live on the Earth need bacteria as low-level "machines" that break down/extract/convert/produce chemical elements and combinations, other high-level organisms needed. But ...