The study of chemistry within the scope of biology: the compounds that occur and the reactions involving them in living organisms.

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What is the biochemical pathway of fluoride?

Fluoride is a common active ingredient in tooth paste to prevent dental caries. It is also added or removed from the water supply in some communities for the same reason, but in children only. My ...
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51 views

Why does the ovum prefers to be arrested at metaphase 2 of meosis before fertilization? What is the possible advantage of this process?

Why does the human ovum prefers to be arrested at metaphase 2 of meosis before fertilization? What is the possible advantage of this process??Please help me with it.
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61 views

What are the ingredients of Pheromone Trap using for controlling Fruit flies of cucumber?

Pheromone Traps are used for fruit fly control. But I have no idea which ingredients or chemicals are used for preparing Pheromone trap
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62 views

Why is a nicotinamide-tryptophan combination used to treat affective episodes in a few older clinical trials?

At least one of the journal articles that reported on such clinical trials allured to the nicotinamide-tryptophan pathway that I assume must be related to the metabolism of tryptophan into serotonin ...
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61 views

When a Lysosome's bonding sites all get bonded to, what is the most resource and energy efficient way to handle the used Lysosome?

Let's say a Lysosome that bonds to a hazardous material to neutralize it has all bonding sites used up. would it be more safe / efficient to excrete the entire Lysosome / hazardous material molecule ...
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140 views

How do cells slowly degrade 5,5'-dibromo-4,4'-dichloro-indigo?

5,5'-dibromo-4,4'-dichloro-indigo is the product of X-gal cleavage, often used as a reporter with B-galactosidase. I've made the (unreferenced) observation that it seems as though the blue product ...
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1answer
21 views

Hydrogen peroxide decomposition and catalase uses [closed]

All google searches have simply returned more info on catalase. I'm looking for a catalyst that isn't found inside living organisms which can break down H2O2. Looking for any resources to look at, or ...
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2answers
63 views

Why is water a polar molecule? [closed]

Also, what is the definition of polar in this case? (9th Grade) Does it have to do with the bonds it makes?
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103 views

alpha tubulin molecular weight problem

Is there any academic reference that shows α-tubulin is around 50-55 kDa? The only thing I found is some data sheets from companies. I need the real reference.
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452 views

Why do living organisms replicate itself or procreate

Why do living organisms spontaneously replicate itself or "procreate" (my understanding is that it does). From a uni-cellular and micro-organism point of view. Is there some sort of stimulant in the ...
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1answer
40 views

Taste of salt water

I had a question relating to chemistry and biology, so please tell me if this is suited better for the Chemistry website. My question was, if water dissolves salt by separating the two ions, the Na+ ...
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2answers
136 views

Is Hydrogen gas present in biogas, and does it spontaneously ignite?

Is Hydrogen gas present in biogas? As it is highly inflammable, may it ignite the other gases like methane?
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1answer
29 views

Binding of Multivalent Antibody to mutiple epitopes?

A multivalent antibody molecule such as Immunoglobulin M Immunoglobulin A etc bind to more than one antigens or epitopes but I am confused about that wheather these multivalent antibodies bind to ...
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1answer
28 views

Can the same protein be represented by primary,secondary,tertiary structure? [closed]

As my book says: Protein can be represented by 4 structures. The primary structure represents the main chain and positions of amino acid residues. But actually, protein is not a rod but rather a ...
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1answer
40 views

Can Omega 3 Fatty Acids prevent chest pain in periodic Atrial Fibrillation?

It is debated if omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (N3PUFa) may be effective in preventing AF (atrial fibrillation), meta-analysis here. However, much less has been considered this: Do N3-PUFAs ...
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1answer
36 views

About molecules and their shape

When a molecule is being used in some biochemical process it has a certain 3-d structure. Is this maintained throughout it's usage or can one specific molecule change it's 3-d shape while it is being ...
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1answer
162 views

Pathway mediates nitroglycerin-induced relief from angina pectoris [closed]

what kind of Pathway mediates nitroglycerin-induced relief from angina pectoris,please provide some idea...
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1answer
39 views

Examples of how the presence or absence 2'-hydroxyl groups influence physicochemical properties of DNA and RNA

I know, for instance, that RNA is much more succetible to alkaline hydrolysis than DNA and this difference is determined by the presence of 2'-hydroxyl group in ribose. I have also heard that "DNA is ...
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1answer
36 views

How much mass does a person lose in a day through breathing and perspiration?

Water and carbon are lost through perspiration and breathing. How much mass is lost in this way in a single day for a typical person?
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1answer
31 views

How is oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange mediated by hemoglobin? [closed]

Oxygen is transferred by hemoglobin from the lungs to tissues, while carbon dioxide is transferred by hemoglobin from tissues to lungs. How is this regulated bidirectional transfer mediated?
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1answer
40 views

Epitope annotated protein

What is epitope annotted protein?? The book from which I got this term is : http://www.springer.com/biomed/immunology/book/978-1-4939-1114-1
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1answer
41 views

Immunomic Microarray

"One can measure two or more signals simultaneously determined by a single feature, i.e., epitope in immunomic microarray DNA microarrays measure one response value for each gene per sample; that ...
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1answer
89 views

What organism most efficiently converts a given quantity of mass into heat?

Question I am trying to answer: In the popular film The Matrix, heat given off by humans is harvested as an energy source. I wondered, if this were possible, would humans be a good organism to ...
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2answers
42 views

To understand Second messenger signalling in I/c and E/c

I found this picture in my study materials. I think it is too schematic and ignores the big pictures. I think the thing connected to the hormone is receptor. The second messanger is then connected ...
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1answer
54 views

Identifying mutations in a yeast strain

Cells of a triple-mutant yeast strain (leu- his- trp-) were spread either on minimal medium or on minimal medium supplemented with various combinations of histidine, leucine, or tryptophan. The ...
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1answer
106 views

Lizards are sometimes called cold-blooded because they depend on their surrounding temperatures to keep them warm.

Predict how the composition of the cell membrane of a lizard might change from winter to summer. Justify predictions. Can someone please help me figure this out. Does it have to do with fluidity?
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63 views

Some question about materials for PCR

I'm planning to order oligo, polymerase, nucleotide, buffer for my first diy PCR experiment (now I have nothing), so I have some questions. How and how long I can storage them? I have only a fridge ...
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2answers
77 views

What nutritious insects exist to farm that require the least attention?

What nutritious insects exist to farm that require the least attention? I'm looking to automate simply, in a self regulating way. Edit: To add detail, I imagine the insects would live densely in a ...
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1answer
519 views

Is breathing in deodorant fumes dangerous for my brain?

I noticed that I sometimes get dizzy when I accidentaly breathe in too much Axe. Also, I find the smell of alchohol rich deodorants quite unpleasant. But, I was wondering, is it actually dangerous? ...
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1answer
57 views

What is the charge on oligonucleotide 5' pGpGpApCpT 3' at pH 7.00?

What is the charge on the nucleotide 5'pGpGpApCpT 3' @ pH 7.00? I thought adenine has 1 NH group and Guanine has NH and ...
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1answer
200 views

What is the exact chemical composition of human body? [duplicate]

I've just watched Breaking Bad Season 01 Episode 03. In that Walter gives the chemical composition of human body. The conversation is as follows Walter White: Let's break it down. Hydrogen. What ...
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1answer
40 views

Affinity isolated peptide

What is affinity isolated peptides??(I have not studied biology since last 8 years and now I am going through it because I need it for my research. So if someone can describe it in simple language it ...
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1answer
38 views

Feedback affecting myocyte metabolism in humans

I understand that there are several reserves available to muscle that can be tapped for ATP, and that each reserve is being used to some degree at all times. Are these reaction rates purely due to ...
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1answer
56 views

Bilayer synthesis? [closed]

If we want to design a bilayer from Myristic acid (14 carbon fatty acid). The average bond length between C-C is 1.5 A. What will be average thickness of the membrane? Edited to include the OP ...
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2answers
423 views

Converting unit/mg or unit/ml into ng/ml, or vice-versa

I am working with the enzyme Cu/Zn Superoxide (SOD1) and i am quantifying them in ng/ml. However, most past studies has SOD1 quantified in unit/mg or unit/ml, and i need to compare the SOD1 level of ...
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1answer
250 views

Calcium for Humans: Supplements vs Fortified Sources

I am intolerant to meat and milk products, but purely natural foods don't contain enough calcium for the Recommended Daily Intake. Links 2 to 4 (but NOT 1) avouch a correlation between calcium ...
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1answer
71 views

Why to choose a grammar from a lot of grammars that can describe structure of proteins? [closed]

Why do we choose a grammar from a lot of grammars that can describe structure of proteins? Usually, there are a lot of (maybe infinite) grammars that can describe one language. Why do we choose a ...
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1answer
165 views

Why not produce protein based on condensation reaction?

I'm fairly new learning about protein. As I know protein can be synthesis by condensation reaction. And the current method to produce protein is purify them from an organism. So why not produce ...
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1answer
162 views

How do you remove DNA/RNA from plastics?

I want to know how to make plastic containers free of DNA & RNA? this is just for knowledge
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1answer
431 views

Definition of Dye- Reduction Test?

Can some one give a simple explanation or definition on what a dye-reduction test is.
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31 views

What is the probe that absorbs at 450nm in the presence of NADH in this assay?

The colorimetric assays by Biovision and Sigma Aldrich seem to utilise a probe that binds to or reacts with NADH in order to cause absorbance at 450nm which can then be quantified by a ...
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13 views

Does the use of a Thiazide diuretic affect the ability of a hair follicle to absorb substances?

Thiazide diuretics are on the World Anti Doping Agency's, as well as the International Olympic Committee, list of banned substances due to it ability to mask illegal substances in urine. The rapid ...
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32 views

Is there a biological environment that we can we assume glutamate exists as glutamic acid?

In the body we almost always assume that glutamate exists as glutamate rather than glutamic acid. It is so commonly glutamate yet glutamic acid and glutamate share the abbreviations of Glu and E. From ...
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23 views

Explanation of sequence motif diagram given in wikipedia [duplicate]

can someone please explain me this graph?? I did not get what information content is in this graph means. Does the size of the letter indicate that higher chance of that letter to be present in that ...
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0answers
21 views

Cannot conjugate Biotin-labeled DNA to Streptavidin-labeled solid surface

I have been trying to immobilize DNA by the bioconjugation of biotin and streptavidin, but I cannot get this work. I added EDC and streptavidin to COOH ...
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34 views

How to measure concentrations of different metals from the environment?

Suppose that different kind of metals and chemicals (e.g. magnesium, sodium, copper) got transmitted to environment e.g. as a cause of an accident. How would measure the levels of those metals and ...
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0answers
18 views

To Study Interactions of two molecules in PubChem

Assume you have two substances Diosminum / Hesperidinum. The former strengthens vascular walls. The latter has role in some glycoside biosynthesis. From Biochemistry, I recall that glycodises have ...
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34 views

Substrate specificities of GPPS, FPPS and GGPPS (isoprenoid biosynthesis enzymes)

I have some questions related to isoprenoid synthesis enzymes. Does Geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase (GGPPS) contribute in Geranyl-Pyrophosphate (GPP), Farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) and ...
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1answer
51 views

Book-recommendation: Biochemistry

I need to have a book which covers following topics two may also be fine: (a) Structure and role of carbohydrates, fats, fatty acids and cholesterol, proteins and amino-acids, nucleic acids. ...
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21 views

Sequence based method for prediction of continuous B cell epitope

What is Sequence based method for prediction of continuous B cell epitope? What is the algorithm/procedure of this method? Can someone please explain this to me in simple language?