The study of chemistry within the scope of biology: the compounds that occur and the reactions involving them in living organisms.

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Is H antigen considered as an agglutinogen?

A and B antigens which have the potential to cause agglutination in certain cases are called agglutinogens. But, as far as I know, H antigen cannot give rise to agglutination. So can it be said that H ...
5
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69 views

How are ions 'pumped' across a membrane during electron transport?

A number of sites (including this one) that provide descriptions of photosynthesis state that high energy electrons 'pump' ions across a membrane. What is the actual 'pumping' mechanism? I've looked ...
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Does alpha-amylase from different species have different *optimal* conditions?

Do the optimal conditions for the enzyme isoforms differ between species? Specifically, do the optimal pH and temperature for alpha-amylase differ for that enzyme produced by B. lichiniformis and A. ...
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2answers
58 views

Grouping OMIM disease codes

I have ~100 sets of genes, and each set includes between 2 and 70 genes. I'd like to perform an enrichment analysis on each of these sets to test if they're enriched for OMIM disease labels. However, ...
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76 views

Can difference in the expression potential of alleles lead to dominance?

Several hour ago I was in thoughts what allele dominance really means on molecular level. As we know from basic genetics, if the organism had Aa type of some gene ...
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I don't want to know what bacteria is called but if the bacteria from unborn babies have benifits on health? [duplicate]

This question is not the same as the duplicate. I was told that when babies are born they are born with bacteria in their stomach. When a child takes antibiotics are there unique bacteria destroyed ...
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156 views

Starch vs Cellulose. What are the differences between Alpha and Beta glucose ring structure in them?

I'm studying "Campbell Biology, 10th Edition" and in chapter 5 page 71 there's a statement I can't understand. according to book: In starch, all the glucose monomers are in the α configuration. ...
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1answer
77 views

Goodwin oscillator explained

Hello I have been reading papers about the Goodwin oscillator and I found that the equations are kind of tricky. Specially the part of the hill coefficient. In his paper "An entrainment model for ...
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1answer
42 views

Reason Non linear Lineweaver–Burk plot [closed]

V vs S plot looks like hyperbolic but 1/V vs 1/S plot is not linear at all. Looks like some kind of exponential growth. What can be the reason?
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201 views

Why does haemoglobin's affinity to oxygen decrease at high altitudes?

My class 12 NCERT book says, Pg 226 The body compensates low oxygen availability by increasing red blood cell production, decreasing the binding affinity of haemoglobin and by increasing breathing ...
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36 views

What happens during the fermentation process of the eco-enzyme?

introduction about the eco-enzyme I have tried to make several ones at home, no matter what I am using, lemon or pineapple peels with brown or white sugar, the final products all show the similar ...
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93 views

What is ATP and why is it said to be a source of energy? [closed]

Is ATP a molecule or a kind of energy. When I studied the active transport, it's said the ATP would release energy to change the carrier protein shape. So confused. Thanks for your help.
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87 views

What determines whether a substance can diffuse across the blood-brain-barrier?

What determines whether a chemical substance is able to cross the blood-brain-barrier via passive, transmembrane diffusion? What structurally differentiates these chemicals?
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83 views

What is the difference between the mitotic spindle and microtubules?

In mitosis, I understand that the centromeres line up on the spindle. I also know that the centrioles form microtubles between the centromeres during mitosis in the metaphase. But, are microtubles ...
6
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1answer
45 views

Is there a difference in cytoplasmic pH between prokaryotes and eukaryotes?

The cytosolic pH in human cells is around 7.4, but fluctuates as the cell is replicating. Prokaryotes and eukaryotes are vastly different in many ways. One thing they share is cytoplasm. Is there any ...
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71 views

What is the meaning of the “d(…)2” notation when writing a DNA sequence?

When the sequence of a DNA oligo is written as d(CGCTAGCG)2 what is the meaning of the d(...)2? Why would it not simply be ...
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If chylomicrons can not get into the capillaries, how do they supply to tissues?

The transport of chylomicrons is into the lacteals mainly because they are too big to get into the capillaries and yet they later supply triglycerides in the extra hepatic tissue by traversing in the ...
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29 views

Why are amides transported via xylem vessels? Why not phloem?

There is a statement in my textbook: "since amides contain more nitrogen than amino acids, they are transported to other parts of plants via xylem vessels" I wanted to know why the book ...
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1answer
50 views

Why does protein kinase C activated by different means have different effects?

I could be way off base but I think I remember learning that Protein Kinase C has some effects when activated by one pathway and other effects when activated by another. How does this happen? Is it ...
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Can aptamers be used to identify the terminal amino acid residue of a peptide?

Suppose there were DNA or RNA aptamers that bind specifically to a certain terminal amino acid residue. Let's name it aaSA (amino acid specific aptamer). For example, the aptamer binding to terminal ...
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117 views

Whole gene sequence analysis to determine source infection [closed]

Is it possible to use whole gene sequence analysis to distinguish between a common source infection and a person-person disease transmission?
3
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2answers
68 views

Can bacteria metabolize fatty acids for fuel?

I'm not a microbiologist, but rather a physiologist curious about microbial metabolism. Much like humans bacteria can utilize glucose, but when it comes to long chain, medium chain, or short chain ...
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86 views

Why do animals have more heavy nitrogen and carbon than plants?

There are two stable Isotopes of nitrogen N14 and N15. The ratio of 15N/14N tends to increase with trophic level, such that herbivores have higher nitrogen isotope values than plants, and ...
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What is the function of CETP?

I read up that CETP transfers cholesterol from HDL, which collected it from tissues, to VLDL. This VLDL is then sent back to the tissues, ultimately forming LDL internalised by cells. What is the ...
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What is the rationale behind reverse cholesterol transport?

Reverse cholesterol transport is transport of cholesterol from the tissues back to liver/VLDL. My question is why do the tissues have this extra cholesterol in the first place? Why would you ...
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1answer
44 views

Lookup for transporter locations in humans

I am interested in several transporters and cotransporters (eg SLC12A1/2 and many others), more precicely, in (human) organism that are made of cells containing those transporters. So does anyone know ...
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Real Wine and Real Bread Superfoods? [closed]

On NPR news on the Fm Radio a doctor said wine and bread is the best 2 things you can eat together? A practice observed to this day by Christianity although the bread and wine are badly stripped of ...
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3answers
167 views

Is it possible to derive the Michaelis-Menten equation under conditions where the product formation is reversible

Text books etc generally derive the Michaelis-Menten equation for the irreversible case i.e $$\ce{E + S <=> ES -> E +P}$$ I can't see how to do it for the reversible case i.e $$\ce{E + S ...
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1answer
23 views

How can dopamine modulate synaptic strength?

Does dopamine act on G protein coupled receptor, leading to more Ca2+ channels on the postsynaptic knob? Also, how is the specificity of the location (of the brain) that dopamine acts on controlled? ...
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1answer
94 views

Why is competitive inhibition reversible?

My Biochemistry book mentions that 'competitive inhibition' is a reversible form of inhibition. But given that the inhibitor is blocking the active site and prevents an enzyme-substrate complex to be ...
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1answer
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280 views

How does the body switch between aerobic and anaerobic respiration?

Lets take the case of a person doing heavy exercise. Aerobic respiration is taking place, but oxygen is about to be finished up. Glycolysis occurs, Krebs cycle finishes. Now NADH and FADH enter ...
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19 views

How does the snail shells' fertilizer compare to regular fertilizers?

May I ask about the quality of the fertilizer derived from the shells and their effectiveness compared to other fertilizers on the market ?
3
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1answer
33 views

How to transform snail shells into a fertilizer? [closed]

I heard that the chemical structure of the snail shell has elements that help in waste water treatment and in some cases as a fertilizer? What is the process used to render snail shells into ...
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Derivation of Michaelis' Equation from Michaelis' Constants [duplicate]

The enzyme reaction condition, $E + S \leftrightarrow ES \rightarrow E + P$ uses $\kappa_{1}$ (forward reaction), $\kappa_{-1}$ and $\kappa_{2}$ as the rate constants. E: Enzyme S: Substrate P: ...
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Statistically, why is the number of mutated genes in eggs treated with chemical mutagenesis one?

Excerpted from the Guide to Research Techniques in Neuroscience [1]: In chemical mutagenesis, a scientist applies a mutagenizing chemical, such as ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) or ...
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1answer
23 views

What are in common between transcription factors?

In terms of their structures (primary to tertiary) and locations? Why do they have these commonalities? Or are any of these commonalities critical to their functions?
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2answers
147 views

Do desulfhydrase-catalysed reactions take place in animal cells?

It isn't a homework question. I'm just stuck with desulfhydrase reactions and am unable to find enough information in the usual places. Any external source on this topic would be helpful.
4
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1answer
84 views

What is the process of degradation of proteins into amino acids inside living cells?

Just like beta oxidation does our cells have a distinct mechanism for degradation of proteins? There are processes for degradation of amino acids but where does these amino acids come from, is it all ...
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1answer
71 views

Are alpha-ketoglutarate and glutamate involved in all transamination reactions?

Is it true that for all biochemical transamination reactions, that alpha-ketoglutarate and glutamate serve as the amino group acceptor and donor, respectively? If this is true, then is it safe to ...
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0answers
39 views

Are cold-blooded animals more energy efficient than warm-blooded animals? [duplicate]

When cold-blooded animals extract energy from glucose, do they do so in a more efficient manner than warm-blooded animals? If they aren't producing heat as a by-product, that would suggest that ...
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1answer
63 views

What is the lower temperature limit for ion channels function?

What is the cold-block temperature of ion channels? (not of nerves or axons)
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1answer
86 views

What is the significance to life of the anomalous properties of water? [closed]

I have heard that the anomalous properties of water - e.g the fact its solid form is less dense than its liquid form - is extremely important. In fact, some people have gone so far as to tell me it ...
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0answers
32 views

Question about DNP derivatives of amino acids (specifically epsilon-DNP-lysine)

I have a pretty basic biochemistry question but am having trouble finding the answer to it: Normally, 1-Fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (DNFB) reacts with just the amino terminus of amino acids. However, ...
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0answers
19 views

How to promote denitrifying microbe activity

I'm an amateur fresh-water aquarist looking at the problem of nitrate reduction (into largely-inert nitrogen gas) in a small-scale aquarium environment. The process of turning the byproducts of fish ...
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2answers
140 views

Protein tertiary Structure formation

As we know that coils and loops are evolutionary variable regions where mutations,deletions, and insertions frequently occur. So does it mean that they don't have much role in the structure of ...
3
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1answer
77 views

Prediction of transmembrane beta barrels?

I studied that prediction of transmembrane alpha helices is more easy and accurate and also good algorithms are available for their prediction. But when we move towards prediction of transmembrane ...
4
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1answer
166 views

Why is ab initio protein secondary structure prediction less reliable than alternatives?

To predict secondary structure of proteins three types of Algorithms are used Ab initio, homology based and neural networks. Among these neural networks prove to be more accurate and give good results ...
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1answer
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How are 6 “fixed” CO2 molecules joined toegther as glucose?

When we study calvin cycle, we study it with 6 molecules so as to form 1 glucose in a single cycle as: 6 RuBP + 6 CO2 => 12 3-PGAL => 1 Glucose + 6 RuMP But if we look deep, then we know that the ...
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Function of NEZHA gene [closed]

What is the function of NEZHA? What effect does it have on microtubules and PLEKHA7? What happens after it has been knocked down?