The study of chemistry within the scope of biology: the compounds that occur and the reactions involving them in living organisms.

learn more… | top users | synonyms

3
votes
1answer
61 views

NADH inhibits gluconeogenesis?

I was told in a physiology lecture that alcohol inhibits gluconeogenesis because 'NADH produced from ethanol catabolism leads to product inhibition'. But is NADH not a reactant coenzyme of ...
1
vote
1answer
43 views

All or nothing phenomena

We know that an action potential is produced by an active cell membrane when the stimulus reaches a certain threshold. When it does, an action potential fires, and when it doesn't, nothing happens. ...
1
vote
1answer
26 views

How does fluorouracil inhibit pyrimidine synthesis?

I was reading in my pharmacology textbook about fluorouracil, and my book mentioned that fluorouracil is an antimetabolite whose function is to inhibit pyrimidine synthesis. However, I was curious to ...
4
votes
1answer
185 views

How many RNA-binding proteins can simultaneously bind on a single mRNA?

Typically, how many RNA-binding proteins can simultaneously bind to a single mRNA? Or said differently, how many "binding sites" does an mRNA have? What order of magnitude? I am interested in RNA ...
3
votes
1answer
51 views

PSI-BLAST website algorithm parameters

http://blast.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Blast.cgi In this website, when I want to apply the psi-blast algorithm on a sequence, under the section of algorithm parameters , what does PSI-BLAST threshold mean? ...
4
votes
1answer
44 views

protein-binding sRNAs

I am actually a computational biologist, pardon me if my question description is a bit off-note, my curiosity is driving me on A bit of background and context: In bacteria, a regulatory protein ...
0
votes
1answer
37 views

Epitope annotated protein

What is epitope annotted protein?? The book from which I got this term is : http://www.springer.com/biomed/immunology/book/978-1-4939-1114-1
0
votes
0answers
17 views

Sequence based method for prediction of continuous B cell epitope

What is Sequence based method for prediction of continuous B cell epitope? What is the algorithm/procedure of this method? Can someone please explain this to me in simple language?
1
vote
1answer
68 views

5,6-dihydrouracil and 5,6-dihydroxyuracil - how they arise in DNA?

5,6-dihydrouracil can be formed from cytosine after exposure of DNA to ionizing radiation under anoxic conditions [Ref]. What are other ways by which 5,6-dihydrouracil is formed in DNA? What about ...
2
votes
1answer
18 views

Are the cpli and ctli tests time senstive(i.e. is it needed to test right away in order to get accurate results)?

I'm sending the blood samples to a lab and this takes some time until the actual testing. Some information on the tests. TLI : ...
1
vote
2answers
60 views

Are triglycerides fat?

I have a quick question: Are triglycerides essentially what we call "fats"? I've tried reading up on it but there seems to be some conflicting information. Thank you.
2
votes
1answer
72 views

What are the ways to test for protein in the canine urine?

I know that one way is to use the reagent sticks and the refractometer, but this is inaccurate. Is protein distinguishable when using a microscope? Is it time sensitive(i.e. have to test it right ...
6
votes
1answer
71 views

Where do the electrons and protons formed from biological reactions go?

In a reaction like disulphide bond formation protons and electrons are released. These particles are presumably damaging in high levels. What systems are in place to prevent a build up of electrons ...
3
votes
1answer
43 views

How can I determine the purity of cells isolated from rat brains if I cannot use FACS, Immunohistochemistry or SEM anaysis?

Please help. I know how to isolate the different cells (astrocytes, other glial cells, neurons and synaptosomes) from brain tissue using a Ficoll-based separation but how do I determine the purity of ...
0
votes
0answers
19 views

Immunomic Microarray

"One can measure two or more signals simultaneously determined by a single feature, i.e., epitope in immunomic microarray DNA microarrays measure one response value for each gene per sample; that ...
2
votes
2answers
66 views

peptide MHC microarray

"The recent technology is peptide–MHC microarray or artificial antigen-presenting chip. In this technique, recombinant peptide–MHC complexes and co-stimulatory molecules are immobilized on a ...
2
votes
1answer
56 views

What is the physiological difference between cortisone and cortisol?

There is only hydrogen bond different. Cortisol is synthesized by our body, while cortisone is given to the patient. Why you cannot give cortisol directly to the patient? I think the reason is ...
1
vote
0answers
27 views

recombinant peptide MHC complex

What is recombinant peptide-MHC complex??? Recombinant DNA means "to bring together genetic material from multiple sources, creating sequences that would not otherwise be found in biological ...
2
votes
1answer
23 views

epitope prediction/ mapping

B-CELL EPITOPE PREDICTION Regarding this article: "Such a molecule can be synthesized or, in case of a protein, its gene can be cloned into an expression vector."----- is a particular line in ...
1
vote
0answers
25 views

How does Temperature influences the rate of protein turnover? [duplicate]

Question How (quantitatively speaking) does temperature influences rate of turnover of transcription factors? Which protein? As I am not looking for any accurate number I am talking about an ...
5
votes
1answer
75 views

Fermentation to acetic acid

How much time is needed for the fermentation to acetic acid production cycle, and the conversion of apple vinegar in a sealed container incubated at 37 °C? Should be in the fully closed? What is ...
2
votes
0answers
51 views

Can diseases be transmitted wirelessly? [closed]

According to the recent research about Electromagnetic Signals from Bacterial DNA (A. Widom, J. Swain, Y. N. Srivastava, S. Sivasubramanian) it seems there is a possibility of a "wireless" version of ...
2
votes
0answers
23 views

What is Colloidal biology and does it have any scientific background?

There is the following bulletin published for the History of Chemistry Vol. 32: 105-118 in 2007: “MOLECULAR” VERSUS “COLLOIDAL”: CONTROVERSIES IN BIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY, 1900–1940* written by PhD ...
0
votes
0answers
18 views

transfection of expression library made from cDNA into cells expressing the desired MHC haplotypes [on hold]

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167569997800205 If anybody has access to this paper, can you please explain me the process to find TAA based on transfection of expression library ...
-2
votes
1answer
46 views

What is hTAP?? Please help

Could not find a single article regarding this. What is hTAP? Tap is Transfer associated protein, that I know, but what is hTAP??(I have not studied biology since last 8 years and now I am going ...
3
votes
1answer
19 views

Meta-analysis of fruits in blocking Cytochrome family

My professor says that some drugs cannot be used with grapefruit. I am trying to search a list of cytochromes and their effect to block members in the cytochrome family. Some in Cyt P450. What is ...
1
vote
0answers
36 views

How to calculate when the velocity declines in an Enzyme Kinetics Problem [closed]

If you have an E,S pair that has KM and Vmax values of 2 mM and 1 mM/sec/μM enzyme and you start the reaction with 10 mM [S] and 1 μM [E], approximately how long will the E,S system stay in the ...
-1
votes
1answer
37 views

Affinity isolated peptide

What is affinity isolated peptides??(I have not studied biology since last 8 years and now I am going through it because I need it for my research. So if someone can describe it in simple language it ...
0
votes
0answers
24 views

MHC restricted peptide

What is an MHC restricted peptide? "MHC-restricted antigen recognition, or MHC restriction, refers to the fact that a given T cell will recognize a peptide antigen only when it is bound to a host ...
2
votes
2answers
21 views

Question about flavodiiron protein

I came across an article about flavodiiron proteins that are responsible for reducing ${\rm O}_2$ to ${\rm H}_2{\rm O}$ thereby protecting the anaerobic prokaryotes and some eukaryotes from oxidative ...
2
votes
2answers
62 views

Manufacturing of Bio Molecules [closed]

Can we Manufacture bio molecules say e.g. the simplest Sugar, C12,H22,O11 the way we do with any other mechanical component. So, we know all about the Structure and arrangement of Atoms in Sugar - so ...
2
votes
1answer
78 views

How does temperature influence the rate of protein degradation?

For computer modeling purposes, I am looking for some referenced quantitative measurements of the effect(s) of temperature on biochemical reactions. Question In particular, my question is: How does ...
5
votes
4answers
153 views

Appropriate Buffer for electerophoresis of DNA & Protein TBE or TAE?

Which buffer is best for DNA Electrophoresis and which is best for Protein to be have a sharp bond? Considering a higher electrical conductivity compared to TAE & TBE and the generation of less ...
1
vote
1answer
44 views

Why is lead dangerous? [closed]

Lead is known to be bad for your health for a long time, but I can't find a explanation why is it so. In school they teach that heavy metals are poisonous, and they are trapped inside our bodies. I ...
3
votes
2answers
32 views

How does one determine intracellular concentration?

The TL;DR version Is there a fast way to determine what the cell environment of a particular cell (E.g RBC) is? (in terms of solute/ionic concentration) I'm not sure if the question belongs here, ...
1
vote
1answer
49 views

How is the rate of transcription influenced by temperature?

How is the rate of transcription influenced by temperature? More precisely, I am looking for an article who quantitatively measured the rate of transcription of an "average gene" and show how this ...
1
vote
1answer
57 views

Influence of temperature on protein binding and decay rates

For computer modeling purposes, I am looking for some referenced quantitative measurements of the effect(s) of temperature on the dynamic of biochemical reactions. Question In particular, my ...
3
votes
1answer
107 views

Integration of several environmental signals

I am looking for examples of different functions that are good fit to how signals are computed in order to respond to the environment. Let's make my question more copmrehensible with an example... ...
4
votes
1answer
63 views

Influence of temperature on transcription, protein binding and decay rates

I am the kind of biologist who doesn't know much about molecular genetics and about the dynamic of biochemical reactions. Question My question concerns the influence of temperature on the dynamic of ...
1
vote
1answer
41 views

Enzyme Assay - pectinase

During assaying an enzyme at high temperature, the substrate (Pectin) is degraded by the high temperature rather than by enzyme, so, how can I minimize degradation of the substrate by the temperature? ...
3
votes
1answer
140 views

Why do we absorb vitamins better from whole foods than from pills?

We can't rely on pills to provide us our nutrients because we don't absorb the nutrients from the pills as effectively. Presumably this is because pills are lacking components that are required for ...
4
votes
3answers
139 views

Why can't you just take a vitamin? Why you need a healthy diet on top of that?

From what I understand, your body needs certain amounts of vitamins and minerals to maintain health. Why can't we just take enough pills to obtain these vitamins and minerals?
2
votes
1answer
79 views

What causes skewed ladder bands on an agarose gel?

I frequently ran into an issue where the bands of my ladder become skewed. What causes this? Here's an example: 0.7% agarose gel, 100V, 60 minutes. Same problem occurs with 1%. I loaded 10 ul of a 20 ...
1
vote
1answer
47 views

What is the expected effect of pH on the activity of a fungal pectinase?

I am working on an enzyme assay for a fungal pectinase.I assayed the enzyme in different buffers from pH 1-12.5 However,the enzyme has good activities starting from pH1-10.5. Is it possible to have ...
2
votes
0answers
32 views

Fatty Acid Synthesis of Fats Longs than 16 C

I understand that the human body when performing Fatty Acid Synthesis can synthesize only until C16 (palmitate). However the ER has desaturases and elongases. I know that desaturases are used to add ...
2
votes
1answer
102 views

Enzyme Assay, absorbance change to concentration change

I have a few issues with this question. An enzyme assay is performed and the kinetic data graphed. The y-intercept of a Lineweaver-Burk plot is 0.6 min/ΔA. The substrate being assayed has a molar ...
2
votes
1answer
34 views

What is the biding site code recognized by the parts of the spliceosome

Another question about another Youtube video. At 0:50, the splicing process begins to remove the non-coding section of the DNA (intron), so the different parts of the spliceosome attach to the borders ...
1
vote
1answer
48 views

What is an effective method for putting on blue rubber butyl stoppers?

They look like this. We have to do a lot of gas sampling and these are really difficult to assemble. I've been scouring the internet for advice but there are none. Do you have experience with ...
5
votes
2answers
254 views

Why is oxygen needed for the electron transfer phosphorylation?

I understand that oxygen is the acceptor of electrons and hydrogen ions during the electron transfer phosphorylation, the last step off the ATP-producing aerobic respiration. But why? Aren't there ...
3
votes
2answers
37 views

Concentration dependent cellular processes

Are there any famous biological processes that depend strongly on a chemical concentration reaching a particular value, like some sort of switch? E.g. if concentration of chemical x reaches ...