The study of chemistry within the scope of biology: the compounds that occur and the reactions involving them in living organisms.

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How much yogurt would one have to consume to have a noticeable effect on neurotransmitters [closed]

I read several recent articles that proposed a link between bacteria in our gut and neurotransmitters in our brain. For instance http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/24997036/ I am curious how much ...
15
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1answer
279 views

Why do specifically bananas go brown quicker in the fridge?

Perhaps the title should be: Why don't all fruits containing phenol residues go brown quickly when left in the fridge? Bananas go brown over time because of the oxidation of phenol residues. ...
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4 views

Plant symbiosis, alternative regulation pathways to AON and miRNA399?

I am currently studying systemic repression of both arbuscular mycorrhizae and nitrogen fixing bacteria in legumes. I know of the AON pathway (which works through CLE and NARK). I also know of ...
5
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1answer
138 views

How do omega-3 fatty acids reduce cholesterol at the molecular level?

I have heard that omega-3 fatty acids found in fish are a good way to prevent/reduce cholesterol problems. My question is how do omega-3 fatty acids do that: what are they doing on a chemical level ...
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1answer
31 views

Is water vapour a product of fossil fuel oxidation?

In textbooks, while water vapour and carbon dioxide are said to be the greenhouses gases which are most abundant in the atmosphere, when a table is given showing the top greenhouse gases emitted by ...
3
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0answers
22 views

Where do class 2 preservatives end up after digestion?

Do anybody know what happens to class 2 preservatives in general after they are digested - i.e details like weather they are absorbed into blood as simplest elements or excreted out or assimilated to ...
5
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1answer
81 views

Can difference in the expression potential of alleles lead to dominance?

Several hour ago I was in thoughts what allele dominance really means on molecular level. As we know from basic genetics, if the organism had Aa type of some gene ...
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0answers
13 views

Amount of Na+ needed to be transfered in order to depolarize the membrane?

I found out that the number of $Na^+$ ions that is needed to be transfered across the membrane to make it depolarized is a small number. In what way its proved? (Goldman equation maybe?)
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1answer
27 views

Hydrophobic proteins in the body?

I know that we can get hydrophobic amino acids, but are there any proteins in the body whose surface is hydrophobic? If so what is their typical function and where can they typically be found and if ...
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37 views

When touch and pain are caused by heat/cold or pressure how are the nerve cells triggered?

I suppose that when your skin is smoothly touched by any cold/heat or pressure we feel that because our AB cells notice this due to a kind of change in the nerve cell. But when you touch something ...
3
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1answer
147 views

Why does Citric Acid occur in Citrus fruits?

Why is there so much citric acid in citrus fruits? And how did it evolve i.e. what did it come from? Is it a by-product of the ripening process? Why have citrus fruit evolved a particularly high ...
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19 views

Cellular demand for antioxidants

Antioxidants such as ascorbate and glutathione serve to inactivate radicals and counteract spontaneous oxidation reactions, such as unwanted disulfide bonds in proteins. These systems are cycles, ...
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1answer
101 views

What determines whether a substance can diffuse across the blood-brain-barrier?

What determines whether a chemical substance is able to cross the blood-brain-barrier via passive, transmembrane diffusion? What structurally differentiates these chemicals?
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1answer
27 views

Is H antigen considered as an agglutinogen?

A and B antigens which have the potential to cause agglutination in certain cases are called agglutinogens. But, as far as I know, H antigen cannot give rise to agglutination. So can it be said that H ...
4
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2answers
62 views

Grouping OMIM disease codes

I have ~100 sets of genes, and each set includes between 2 and 70 genes. I'd like to perform an enrichment analysis on each of these sets to test if they're enriched for OMIM disease labels. However, ...
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1answer
77 views

Goodwin oscillator explained

Hello I have been reading papers about the Goodwin oscillator and I found that the equations are kind of tricky. Specially the part of the hill coefficient. In his paper "An entrainment model for ...
4
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2answers
74 views

What is the meaning of the “d(…)2” notation when writing a DNA sequence?

When the sequence of a DNA oligo is written as d(CGCTAGCG)2 what is the meaning of the d(...)2? Why would it not simply be ...
7
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1answer
647 views

How to Design an siRNA Experiment?

I'm going to undertake an siRNA experiment soon, but I have only read about them. I want to address the role an enzyme plays in processing a protein. From what I understand, I will need to pick two ...
3
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2answers
276 views

Starch vs Cellulose. What are the differences between Alpha and Beta glucose ring structure in them?

I'm studying "Campbell Biology, 10th Edition" and in chapter 5 page 71 there's a statement I can't understand. according to book: In starch, all the glucose monomers are in the α configuration. ...
0
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1answer
54 views

Reason Non linear Lineweaver–Burk plot [closed]

V vs S plot looks like hyperbolic but 1/V vs 1/S plot is not linear at all. Looks like some kind of exponential growth. What can be the reason?
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2answers
334 views

Why does haemoglobin's affinity to oxygen decrease at high altitudes?

My class 12 NCERT book says, Pg 226 The body compensates low oxygen availability by increasing red blood cell production, decreasing the binding affinity of haemoglobin and by increasing breathing ...
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1answer
16k views

Why is ATP the preferred choice for energy carriers?

Why is ATP the most prevalent form of chemical energy storage and utilization in most cells?
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1answer
107 views

What is ATP and why is it said to be a source of energy? [closed]

Is ATP a molecule or a kind of energy. When I studied the active transport, it's said the ATP would release energy to change the carrier protein shape. So confused. Thanks for your help.
0
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1answer
47 views

What happens during the fermentation process of the eco-enzyme?

introduction about the eco-enzyme I have tried to make several ones at home, no matter what I am using, lemon or pineapple peels with brown or white sugar, the final products all show the similar ...
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1answer
105 views

How the chaotropic agents help in purification of DNA molecule?

Those plants which are rich in secondary metabolites and polysaccharides DNA isolation can be done using certain chaotropic agents? can any one explain how it works?
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3answers
187 views

Is it possible to derive the Michaelis-Menten equation under conditions where the product formation is reversible

Text books etc generally derive the Michaelis-Menten equation for the irreversible case i.e $$\ce{E + S <=> ES -> E +P}$$ I can't see how to do it for the reversible case i.e $$\ce{E + S <...
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3answers
376 views

How does the body switch between aerobic and anaerobic respiration?

Lets take the case of a person doing heavy exercise. Aerobic respiration is taking place, but oxygen is about to be finished up. Glycolysis occurs, Krebs cycle finishes. Now NADH and FADH enter ...
11
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3answers
422 views

During starvation, does the human body do anything to prioritize which organs receive nutrients?

When food is scarce, the body slows its metabolic rate to conserve energy. Are there any other systems or processes that prioritize which organs receive nutrients?
3
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1answer
105 views

What is the difference between the mitotic spindle and microtubules?

In mitosis, I understand that the centromeres line up on the spindle. I also know that the centrioles form microtubles between the centromeres during mitosis in the metaphase. But, are microtubles ...
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3answers
1k views

What is the purpose of gluconeogenesis?

The gluconeogenesis pathway seems quite pointless to me. I don't understand why an organism would want to spend energy to create a molecule that can then be metabolized again for less energy? The ...
6
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1answer
53 views

Is there a difference in cytoplasmic pH between prokaryotes and eukaryotes?

The cytosolic pH in human cells is around 7.4, but fluctuates as the cell is replicating. Prokaryotes and eukaryotes are vastly different in many ways. One thing they share is cytoplasm. Is there any ...
9
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1answer
89 views

Why do animals have more heavy nitrogen and carbon than plants?

There are two stable Isotopes of nitrogen N14 and N15. The ratio of 15N/14N tends to increase with trophic level, such that herbivores have higher nitrogen isotope values than plants, and ...
34
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6answers
3k views

Why are there no organisms with metal body parts, like weapons, bones, and armour? (Or are there?)

Reading this question, Why are there no wheeled animals?, I wondered why no organisms seem to make use of the tensile and other strengths of metal, as we do in metal tools and constructions. I am ...
6
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1answer
42 views

Why aren't plants and animals capable of assimilating $\ce{N2}$ directly from the atmosphere?

From a E-book written by Hungary scientists, the reason is $\ce{N2}$ is inert. Is this correct? How does the chemical properties of gas species ($\ce{SO2}$, $\ce{O2}$, $\ce{NH3}$, etc) ...
2
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1answer
50 views

Why does protein kinase C activated by different means have different effects?

I could be way off base but I think I remember learning that Protein Kinase C has some effects when activated by one pathway and other effects when activated by another. How does this happen? Is it ...
0
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1answer
37 views

Energy input during ATP Dephosphorylation?

What is the energy input needed to break the phosphor bond during ATP Dephosphorylation? How and when this will occur? Many thanks for your answers. Edit 1: I know how much free energy (∆G) is ...
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0answers
24 views

If chylomicrons can not get into the capillaries, how do they supply to tissues?

The transport of chylomicrons is into the lacteals mainly because they are too big to get into the capillaries and yet they later supply triglycerides in the extra hepatic tissue by traversing in the ...
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1answer
31 views

How is the enzyme glycogen synthase regulated?

How is the enzyme glycogen synthase regulated in regards to glycogen synthesis? I think I understand that phosphorylation decreases its activity (through glycogen synthase kinase?), but what role do ...
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0answers
119 views

Whole gene sequence analysis to determine source infection [closed]

Is it possible to use whole gene sequence analysis to distinguish between a common source infection and a person-person disease transmission?
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0answers
29 views

Can aptamers be used to identify the terminal amino acid residue of a peptide?

Suppose there were DNA or RNA aptamers that bind specifically to a certain terminal amino acid residue. Let's name it aaSA (amino acid specific aptamer). For example, the aptamer binding to terminal ...
3
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2answers
74 views

Can bacteria metabolize fatty acids for fuel?

I'm not a microbiologist, but rather a physiologist curious about microbial metabolism. Much like humans bacteria can utilize glucose, but when it comes to long chain, medium chain, or short chain ...
3
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2answers
147 views

How do muscle cells synthesize glycogen?

Hexokinase enzyme is present in all cells (including muscle cells) and can be suppressed by excessive G-6-P product. So that's why in the liver, glucokinase can act on glucose without inhibition of it ...
2
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0answers
30 views

What is the function of CETP?

I read up that CETP transfers cholesterol from HDL, which collected it from tissues, to VLDL. This VLDL is then sent back to the tissues, ultimately forming LDL internalised by cells. What is the ...
2
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0answers
28 views

What is the rationale behind reverse cholesterol transport?

Reverse cholesterol transport is transport of cholesterol from the tissues back to liver/VLDL. My question is why do the tissues have this extra cholesterol in the first place? Why would you ...
5
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1answer
65 views

Is it possible to isolate and analyse intermediates of protein folding?

I would like to know if there is an assay which could allow us to analyse a protein before it has assumed its 3D functional form. While studying structural biology, I only came to know the forces that ...
4
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0answers
54 views

How do animals with fur get enough sunlight to produce vitamin-D? [duplicate]

How is vitamin D synthesized in animals with fur; how do the cells get enough sunlight? If vitamin-D cannot be synthesized because of limited sunlight reaching the skin, do these animals have to ...
1
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1answer
45 views

Lookup for transporter locations in humans

I am interested in several transporters and cotransporters (eg SLC12A1/2 and many others), more precicely, in (human) organism that are made of cells containing those transporters. So does anyone know ...
3
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3answers
312 views

Is there a known glucosepane cross-link breaker?

I read the following on wikipedia: There is, however, no agent known that can break down the most common AGE, glucosepane, which appears 10 to 1,000 times more common in human tissue than any ...
3
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1answer
96 views

Why is competitive inhibition reversible?

My Biochemistry book mentions that 'competitive inhibition' is a reversible form of inhibition. But given that the inhibitor is blocking the active site and prevents an enzyme-substrate complex to be ...
2
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1answer
79 views

Are alpha-ketoglutarate and glutamate involved in all transamination reactions?

Is it true that for all biochemical transamination reactions, that alpha-ketoglutarate and glutamate serve as the amino group acceptor and donor, respectively? If this is true, then is it safe to ...