The study of chemistry within the scope of biology: the compounds that occur and the reactions involving them in living organisms.

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199 views

What causes skewed ladder bands on an agarose gel?

I frequently ran into an issue where the bands of my ladder become skewed. What causes this? Here's an example: 0.7% agarose gel, 100V, 60 minutes. Same problem occurs with 1%. I loaded 10 ul of a 20 ...
2
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1answer
244 views

Enzyme Assay, absorbance change to concentration change

I have a few issues with this question. An enzyme assay is performed and the kinetic data graphed. The y-intercept of a Lineweaver-Burk plot is 0.6 min/ΔA. The substrate being assayed has a molar ...
2
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1answer
34 views

Transport of mammalian insulin in vivo

What is the mechanism for transport of insulin in mammalian cells?
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1answer
38 views

Activity of glucokinase

From Solomon et al, 2013 ACC Synthetic biology and from this video : Here, there are 2 competing reactions for glucose - one with glk as enzyme and other with gdh as enzyme. In the graph, y axis ...
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2answers
75 views

Clarification on Hatch and slack pathway

The following is a minor clarification that I want to make, since it is rarely addressed directly in most of the texts I have gone through. In C₄ pathway, the chloroplasts are dimorphic, that is, ...
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1answer
276 views

Independence of Light independent reaction in photosynthesis?

Inspired by a question asked to me by a classmate, I have the following question about Light-independent (dark phase) reactions in photosynthesis:- Let us suppose an algae sample was exposed to ...
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1answer
621 views

Glycolysis and Non-Glucose Sugars

In my biology book's section on disaccharide metabolism and glycolysis, it states that sugars other than glucose must be acted upon to enter glycolysis. Let's take sucrose as an example. Sucrose is ...
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3answers
75 views

Where can I find an at least Semi-Comprehensive list of what biochemical reactions Acetyl-CoA participates in?

Acetyl-CoA has a number of biochemical roles in the body and I'm curious as to whether anybody knows where I can find at least a semi-comprehensive list (i.e. comprising all the major roles in the ...
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1answer
352 views

How to calculate or know by experiment the entropy of enzymes or protein?

How do you calculate or experimentally determine the entropy of enzymes or protein? In particular, I am interested in Boltzmann and conformational entropy, and Gibbs free energy. Any references are ...
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1answer
145 views

How are the correct tRNAs transported to the ribosome?

I have been trying to understand how the tRNA transporting the correct amino acid required by the ribosome reaches the ribosome. The only way I can imagine this happening is that all types of ...
2
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1answer
129 views

How does GTP help in the step of codon recognition?

The anticodon of an incoming tRNA base pairs with the complementary mRNA codon in the A site.Hydrolysis of GTP increases the efficiency and accuracy of this step. How does GTP do so ?
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1answer
61 views

Which Enzymes are Responsible for the Biodegradation of Noladin Ether?

Which enzymes degrade the CB1-specific endogenous cannabinoid 2-arachidonyl glyceryl ether? (Noladin ether)
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48 views

Which Enzymes are Responsible for the Biodegradation of Beta-endorphin?

Which enzymes are responsible for the biodegradation of the endogenous opioid peptide, beta-endorphin?
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158 views

What are the biochemical interactions between human body and Polyethylene?

Our waterways and oceans are showing increased levels of plastic contamination. These plastics are breaking down into smaller pieces. When one goes to the beach and plays in the surf they often ...
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0answers
14 views

Does blood typing still provide a use for ancient tissue analysis?

Modern techniques. In recent years, DNA sequencing has become extremely cheap. This, compounded by the ability to PCR miniscule samples to viable samples for analysis, means that aDNA can be ...
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2answers
44 views

What are the typical values of probabilities for nonspecific binding to an antibody?

I'm physicist by training, so please excuse me if I don't use the proper terminology. I think there is a way to make a sensor that detects if a single antibody has caught something from the flow. So ...
2
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0answers
24 views

Is it possible to isolate and analyse intermediates of protein folding?

I would like to know if there is an assay which could allow us to analyse a protein before it has assumed its 3D functional form. While studying structural biology, I only came to know the forces that ...
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0answers
25 views

What are the biological mechanisms of candy causing nausea?

As I sit here after eating too much chocolate, I wonder: What are the biological mechanisms behind eating too much candy candy causing nausea in a healthy individual? Is it a spike in blood sugar, ...
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1answer
57 views

Is it possible that a set of functionally related proteins in a pathway fulfill different functions? [closed]

Could it be that a given pathway of enzymes (or proteins in general) may fulfill different purposes in a cell by for shifting partners? Say protein A activates B, B activates C and C has a specific ...
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0answers
84 views

Can diseases be transmitted wirelessly? [closed]

According to the recent research about Electromagnetic Signals from Bacterial DNA (A. Widom, J. Swain, Y. N. Srivastava, S. Sivasubramanian) it seems there is a possibility of a "wireless" version of ...
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0answers
42 views

Isoprene and Acrolein emissions of wood burning, insect burning and smoldering tobacco cigarette [closed]

I'd like to identify what makes a fume more or less toxic, above all those from commonly smoked organic stuff: tobacco, cannabis, comparatively to less common ones. For that, we can focus on 2 gas ...
2
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1answer
56 views

What is inside IDL (intermediate density lipoproteïn)?

I am studying about the endogene lipidcycle in the human body and I know that VLDL (very low density lipoproteïn) is made in the liver and that it contains triglycerides and cholesterol from your food ...
2
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0answers
52 views

Is an antivenom venomous?

What happens when someone takes an anti-venom for an animal they weren't bit by, either for incorrect identification of the animal they were bit by or if they weren't bit at all? I am looking for the ...
2
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1answer
57 views

What Biology topics are linked to the Nitrogen Cycle? [closed]

What other educational topics are linked to the Nitrogen Cycle? I am a Science teacher, and I need to organise my lessons. Thanks!
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162 views

What tests can be performed to test the purity and quality of the raw peptide HCG (Human Chorionic Gonadotropin)

What tests could be run to test the purity and type of HCG? We are looking to purchase HCG from China but the purity and quality varies between labs, we are able to receive samples of the raw peptide ...
2
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1answer
132 views

What's the difference between Cytoplasmic pool and Granular storage pool?

What's the difference between Cytoplasmic pool and Granular storage pool when speaking about neurotransmitters and synaptic cleft. I encountered this here: Amphetamine’s mechanism of action thus ...
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1answer
598 views

Water potential in plants?

The concept of water potential in plants tries (and succeeds) to explain various movement and transports in plants. I have learnt that it can be though of being composed of various components like the ...
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0answers
208 views

Can Pfx polymerase add only one 3' A overhang?

I am trying to clone a PCR product that was amplified using Pfx polymerase into pGemT vector. I had to A-tail the PCR product using Taq polymerase since Pfx only generates blunt end products. My ...
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0answers
99 views

How do omega-3 fatty acids reduce cholesterol at the molecular level?

I have heard that omega-3 fatty acids found in fish are a good way to prevent/reduce cholesterol problems. My question is how do omega-3 fatty acids do that: what are they doing on a chemical level ...
2
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1answer
47 views

Glutamine analysis

I use to run a method to analyse all the amino-acids in a food sample. For that I have to hydrololyse the sample and in the last stage of the method I read the amino acids with a ion exchange ...
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0answers
199 views

Virucides - Herbal and otherwise, for HHV6 type virus or any inner-cell virus

Does anyone know where I can find a reliable list of virucides (not anti-virus) that can be used by humans? This virucide must be able to affect viruses that are already inside the cells. St John's ...
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2answers
757 views

How much vanilla will kill a person?

I received a gift that is a jug of Pure Mexican Vanilla. Having never dealt with large quantities of vanilla, it made me curious as to what would happen if a person had too much vanilla. I understand ...
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2answers
301 views

How are proteins formed?

Somewhere, I have read that we need to consume proteins to make amino acids to make new proteins. What does it suggest? How do we make proteins from proteins?
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2answers
93 views

Functioning of EDTA

I know that EDTA chelates metal ions. It weakens bacterial cell wall and inactivates the DNases. What is the reason why it can do so ? I guess it can inactivate DNases by altering the ...
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2answers
71 views

What is the importance of urea in mass spectrometry?

What is the importance of urea in mass spectrometry? We use 8M urea to FASP our proteins prior to mass spectrometry. What is the significance of using 8M urea? and how does it affect the proteins?
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1answer
131 views

Molecules and human memory

Has it been demonstrated that the memory of human brain is just connections between neurons, not "long" molecules such as RNA or proteins?
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2answers
140 views

Finding a easy and cheap method for dyeing dNTP

I want to measure OD to know the concentration of dNTP. Any idea for dyeing dNTP at cheapest price and easiest way ?
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1answer
77 views

How does salinity affect the bonds of an enzyme?

According to my textbook, "Too much or too little salt can interfere with the hydrogen bonds that hold an enzyme in its three-dimensional shape". I know that NaCl is held together by an ionic bond, ...
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2answers
68 views

Are fatty acids and glycerol lipids?

As far as I know, lipids are defined as biomolecules which are hydrophobic. Triglycerides are composed of fatty acids and glycerol and are considered lipids but, are fatty acids alone or glycerol ...
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72 views

How does high-fidelity of DNA replication depend on the formation of hydrogen bonds?

Replication has an error rate of less than 1 in 100 million. DNA polymerase forms H-bond with the H-bond acceptor atoms in the minor groove. <-- enhance fidelity here? Binding of the triphosphate ...
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1answer
47 views

How does fluorouracil inhibit pyrimidine synthesis?

I was reading in my pharmacology textbook about fluorouracil, and my book mentioned that fluorouracil is an antimetabolite whose function is to inhibit pyrimidine synthesis. However, I was curious to ...
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2answers
379 views

Does osmosis occur when we have two different substances?

Assume that we have a semi-permeable membrane with water on both sides. First, straightforward, case: On the right side, we have a concentration of the substance A, and on the left side, we have pure ...
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2answers
394 views

PEG-silane treatment: why incubate for 18 hours at 60 degrees Celsius?

I am conducting a biochemistry-related experiment and I have been unable to understand a step which is commonly performed. My aim in this step is to apply a PEG (Polyethylene glycol) silane layer. ...
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1answer
198 views

Which concentration of BSA is recommended for dynamic light scattering experiments?

What is the recommended concentration of BSA to be mixed with water so as to prepare a very dilute solution in order to clearly study the intensity-intensity correlation with single scattering ? I ...
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1answer
42 views

Anesthetics, specifically inhaled anesthetics

I have had a look at previous inhaled anesthetics and many of them appear to be fluorocarbons. What could be the mechanism behind fluorine's anesthetic properties? Is it the specific bonding pattern ...
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1answer
41 views

Clonidine's adrenonergic nature?

I am little confused here. I used the term adrenoagonist and sympatholytic to describe the compound. However, my teacher says that the correct term here is adrenomimetic -term. My understanding of ...
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2answers
761 views

Book Recommendations: GRE Subject Test In Biochemistry, Cell And Molecular Biology

There are probably a lot of really good answers that may vary significantly in terms of content. I'm looking for a set of books that I can read in preparation for the GRE Subject Test In ...
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1answer
75 views

How do the quantities of ATP formed during aerobic and anaerobic respiration compare? [closed]

How do the quantities of ATP formed during aerobic and anaerobic respiration compare?
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1answer
104 views

Preservation of human tissue

At my med school we have human samples (body parts, organs, etc.) They are soaked in some sort of solution for long term storage. I'm quite sure that it's not formaldehyde as that would be really ...
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2answers
64 views

Are triglycerides fat?

I have a quick question: Are triglycerides essentially what we call "fats"? I've tried reading up on it but there seems to be some conflicting information. Thank you.