The study of chemistry within the scope of biology: the compounds that occur and the reactions involving them in living organisms.

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Diffusion of Hypotonic solution into solution with glucose and starch

Cell walls are selectively permeable to ions and organic molecules. Sometimes the selectivity is passive and a reflection of the physical laws governing diffusion. We can do simple experiments that ...
0
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0answers
15 views

Cannot conjugate Biotin-labeled DNA to Streptavidin-labeled solid surface

I have been trying to immobilize DNA by the bioconjugation of biotin and streptavidin, but I cannot get this work. I added EDC and streptavidin to COOH ...
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12 views

Which biosynthetic pathways take place in the plastid and were are they located?

I know that the isoprenoid, jasmonate, glucosinolate, fatty acids, chlorophyll, starch, and aromatic amino acid syntheses are located in the plastid. But I don't know if they are located in the ...
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1answer
23 views

Dehydration from caffeine, alcohol and other

Tea, Coffee, Beer, Coke etc… I wonder if the benefit from amount of fluid we get from them is bigger or smaller then the handicap of dehydration. In other words it is worth to drink them if we want ...
2
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1answer
40 views

Dehydration by a tea, coffee, beer etc

For the long time I am trying to find out if the following is truth: They say that some beverages dehydrates. I heard that about tea (sometimes green, sometimes black, sometimes both), coffee, beer ...
3
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1answer
58 views

How long does it take to form a peptide bond?

What is the time taken to form a peptide bond in vivo or in vitro? It isn't mentioned in my course on protein structures. I was just curious to find out if any time scale is known? Given that ...
2
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2answers
35 views

Conversion of glucose to glycogen

Why is excess glucose, as a glycogen, stored in only a limited amount as compared to the lipid in our body? Why is mature glycogen arranged (polymerized) in 12 tiers polymer?
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0answers
19 views

Microscopic Organism [on hold]

I was looking under my microscope and saw this... I asking about the long organism with a circular head... I observed it moving and wanted to find out what this was. Thank You
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0answers
16 views

What would happen to a body in an astronaut suit over time if floating free? [duplicate]

I'm not sure if this is best in Biology or Physics, but on Earth we decay to skeletons and then eventually to dust. What would happen in space in a space suit?
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0answers
12 views

Tm and protein delta H [closed]

we have 2 types of protein , one of them with Tm: x and another one with Tm: x+y but once with lower Tm has higher delta H and another one with higher Tm has lower delta H . how it could be possible?
4
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1answer
64 views

Statistics on energy consumption breakdown per biological functions across organisms?

Are there any statistics available on how much energy organisms use for each biological functions (i.e. something similar to the line of "Bacteria spend X% of energy on information processing, Y% for ...
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1answer
33 views

How much mass does a person lose in a day through breathing and perspiration?

Water and carbon are lost through perspiration and breathing. How much mass is lost in this way in a single day for a typical person?
3
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3answers
65 views

True or false & fill in the blanks

A ribosome is where amino acids are linked together by peptide bonds. A virus is NOT considered prokaryotic because it does not have a membrane. The nucleotide ATP is one of the most used energy ...
2
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0answers
17 views

What are the biological mechanisms of candy causing nausea?

As I sit here after eating too much chocolate, I wonder: What are the biological mechanisms behind eating too much candy candy causing nausea in a healthy individual? Is it a spike in blood sugar, ...
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1answer
43 views

Could we engineer humans to behave like insects? [closed]

First off, though complex, I'm assuming insects are at an earlier evolutionary stage than humans. That being said, could humans be genetically engineered to behave like insects? I'm not talking about ...
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1answer
50 views

Is there a known glucosepane cross-link breaker?

I read the following on wikipedia: There is, however, no agent known that can break down the most common AGE, glucosepane, which appears 10 to 1,000 times more common in human tissue than any ...
2
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1answer
27 views

Glycerol 3-phosphate nomenclature

Why is Glycerol 3-phosphate named in such way? Shouldn't it be named as Glycerol 1-phosphate by proper IUPAC- nomenclature?
3
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0answers
40 views

Why is ATP the main nucleoside triphosphate used to exchange energy? [duplicate]

Out of all of the nucleoside triphosphates what makes ATP the most used? Is it its structure? The amount of energy it contains? Why is GTP not used as much? What is the deal with the other nucleoside ...
0
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2answers
57 views

Why is water a polar molecule? [closed]

Also, what is the definition of polar in this case? (9th Grade) Does it have to do with the bonds it makes?
2
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0answers
30 views

Is it possible that a set of functionally related proteins in a pathway fulfill different functions?

Could it be that a given pathway of enzymes (or proteins in general) may fulfill different purposes in a cell by for shifting partners? Say protein A activates B, B activates C and C has a specific ...
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1answer
37 views

Immunomic Microarray

"One can measure two or more signals simultaneously determined by a single feature, i.e., epitope in immunomic microarray DNA microarrays measure one response value for each gene per sample; that ...
11
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1answer
178 views

Why doesn't HDL cause diseases like LDL?

LDL particles pose a risk for cardiovascular disease when they invade the endothelium and become oxidized, since the oxidized forms are more easily retained by the proteoglycans. A complex set of ...
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1answer
49 views

Why is leucine amino acid used the most in proteins and tryptophan the least?

The amino acid leucine, is used in proteins more than others. Leucine with 9.1 percent (its average in more than 1.150 different proteins) is used most and tryptophan with 1.4 percent is used less ...
6
votes
1answer
36 views

Are there ways to speed up the growth of plants?

I'm interested in what humans can do to speed up the rate of growth in a plant. I'm interested in both the context of home gardening and large-scale, institution-backed projects. Obviously, optimal ...
0
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1answer
22 views

How is oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange mediated by hemoglobin? [closed]

Oxygen is transferred by hemoglobin from the lungs to tissues, while carbon dioxide is transferred by hemoglobin from tissues to lungs. How is this regulated bidirectional transfer mediated?
4
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1answer
105 views

When should endocytosis inhibitors be used in cell binding assays?

I'm beginning to do some cell-binding assays and I would like for my proteins to not be endocytosed by my mammalian cells. Typical suggestions are for the cells to be kept on ice and that the binding ...
10
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3answers
158 views

Formation of Life

Originally, life evolved from non-living matter. Why is life only generated from other life nowadays, and why doesn't it evolve from inanimate matter, like it did originally billions of years ago, ...
2
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1answer
29 views

What is the importance of urea in mass spectrometry?

What is the importance of urea in mass spectrometry? We use 8M urea to FASP our proteins prior to mass spectrometry. What is the significance of using 8M urea? and how does it affect the proteins?
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4answers
182 views

Specificity of Protein Kinases in Signaling Pathways..?

In most of the signaling pathways the activated receptor when activates Protein Kinase through the action of secondary messenger, then these protein kinases almost always phosphorylate on the specific ...
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1answer
17 views

What controls Fructose regulation in plants?

Sugars are found ubiquitously in plants and are regulated. For sucrose it's pretty straightforward - it's basically kept at a low ish level, and put into storage or other intermediate compounds. ...
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0answers
29 views

How to measure concentrations of different metals from the environment?

Suppose that different kind of metals and chemicals (e.g. magnesium, sodium, copper) got transmitted to environment e.g. as a cause of an accident. How would measure the levels of those metals and ...
0
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1answer
39 views

Taste of salt water

I had a question relating to chemistry and biology, so please tell me if this is suited better for the Chemistry website. My question was, if water dissolves salt by separating the two ions, the Na+ ...
1
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1answer
46 views

Enzyme Assay - pectinase

During assaying an enzyme at high temperature, the substrate (Pectin) is degraded by the high temperature rather than by enzyme, so, how can I minimize degradation of the substrate by the temperature? ...
3
votes
1answer
67 views

How do CO₂ and carbonic acid (H₂CO₃) work in buffering the blood?

Been struggling with this for the past few days even after reading half of the acid base tutorial here, if someone could help me that'd be great. What I don't understand is how HCO3- is supposed to ...
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2answers
120 views

Can excessive carbonated drink consumption lead to elevated red blood cell levels?

I've recently had a blood test and the results displayed elevated levels of erythrocytes as well as hemoglobin. (As a result my hematocrit levels were also above average) At my workplace there is a ...
2
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1answer
18 views

Relative sweetness

I have noticed that when I eat something sweet, then afterwards, I eat something else that is sweet, the second sweet food is not as sweet as it usually is. I am pretty sure many others have a similar ...
4
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1answer
82 views

Besides hemoglobin, what proteins are present in red blood cells?

I knew that mature red blood cells (RBCs) lacked nuclei, but I wasn't aware until just now that they also lacked ribosomes and mitochondria. Most cells in the human body all contain a common laundry ...
3
votes
1answer
95 views

What is the physiological difference between cortisone and cortisol?

There is only hydrogen bond different. Cortisol is synthesized by our body, while cortisone is given to the patient. Why you cannot give cortisol directly to the patient? I think the reason is ...
1
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1answer
43 views

How does salinity affect the bonds of an enzyme?

According to my textbook, "Too much or too little salt can interfere with the hydrogen bonds that hold an enzyme in its three-dimensional shape". I know that NaCl is held together by an ionic bond, ...
2
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1answer
308 views

What can cause the bloating in high protein diet of Whey proteins?

I am thinking what can cause the swelling of gastrointestinal system i.e. bloating after high protein diet of Whey proteins. Liver does breaks those proteins to branched chain amino acids (BCAA), ...
0
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1answer
36 views

Can Omega 3 Fatty Acids prevent chest pain in periodic Atrial Fibrillation?

It is debated if omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (N3PUFa) may be effective in preventing AF (atrial fibrillation), meta-analysis here. However, much less has been considered this: Do N3-PUFAs ...
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0answers
33 views

Can non-carbonated energy drinks boost alcohol intoxication?

I just read news article about banning caffeine in alcohol drinks and about that energy drinks increase the urge to drink alcohol. Energy drinks cause sugar intoxication - answer about it here ...
2
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1answer
30 views

How do catalase and other antioxidants neutralize free radicals?

In learning about how cofactors are essential to proper enzyme function, my textbook mentioned catalase and its relation to the human body. According to my textbook, catalase is similar to hemoglobin ...
6
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1answer
54 views

How does the body “know” how to metabolize foreign substances

As a freshman biochemistry major, I find myself befuddled by our body's ability to perform complex chemical reactions to break down foreign substances. I can see how we would evolve explicit pathways ...
6
votes
1answer
427 views

How to Design an siRNA Experiment?

I'm going to undertake an siRNA experiment soon, but I have only read about them. I want to address the role an enzyme plays in processing a protein. From what I understand, I will need to pick two ...
6
votes
1answer
178 views

What's the difference between Ki and IC50?

I have just read this post at researchgate: "How to calculate experimental binding free energy from the IC50 value" I am not be very sure about what the difference is between Ki and IC50. Could ...
0
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1answer
25 views

Binding of Multivalent Antibody to mutiple epitopes?

A multivalent antibody molecule such as Immunoglobulin M Immunoglobulin A etc bind to more than one antigens or epitopes but I am confused about that wheather these multivalent antibodies bind to ...
1
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1answer
68 views

5,6-dihydrouracil and 5,6-dihydroxyuracil - how they arise in DNA?

5,6-dihydrouracil can be formed from cytosine after exposure of DNA to ionizing radiation under anoxic conditions [Ref]. What are other ways by which 5,6-dihydrouracil is formed in DNA? What about ...
4
votes
1answer
42 views

Do plants have preference for the form of nitrogen as nutrient?

In the nitrogen cycle (ecology), it is usually described that plants can use nitrogen in the form of ammonium (NH4+) and nitrate (NO3-). Do plants prefer one form of nitrogen over the other?
2
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1answer
22 views

Can plants directly use sulfuric acid?

In the explanation of the sulfur cycle, it is often said that sulfur moves from the atmosphere to the ground by acid rain in the form of sulfuric acid. Can plants directly use sulfuric acid to ...