Biotechnology is a field of biology which utilizes biological systems like microorganisms to produce valuable products, such as biofuels, drugs, and vaccines.

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Switching of life cycle Lambda phage

Hello everyone iam very curious to know how the lambda phage switch their life cycle (lysogenic and lytic cycle). I want to know the detailed mechanism by which this switching occurs in the phage.
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What's the best way of generating high yields of mitochondrial DNA

I want to extract mitochondrial DNA from a fungus, but there are two ways to cultivate the fungus, one is to cultivate it on an agar medium (covering a piece of cellophane paper to stop hyphae to grow ...
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Dosage Compensation? [on hold]

Why is there dosage compensation if you can have the Law of Dominance that can come into play? And if a chromosome is inactivated, then shouldn't people with chromosomal abnormalities be normal? ...
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20 views

RNA interference and the former Petunias experiment >

I'm having problems trying to understand how RNA interference works. From what I understood, in simple terms there is this dsRNA which is fragmented into siRNA by the enzyme called Dicer, and those ...
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1answer
27 views

Can restriction sites be used as PCR primers?

I have a DNA fragment that contains the gene of interest sandwiched by restriction enzyme sites. Then, can PCR amplify the entire fragment, recognizing the restriction enzyme sites?
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55 views

Perplexing by the way of estimating the shared or different genes between humans and chimps

We share 98.5% genes with chimps (it means we have 98.5% same DNA sequeces ),so there is about one percent difference .It means we can approximately differ from them by one base pair every hundred ...
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22 views

For a recombinant pUC19 plasmid with cut sites at Hind III and EcoO109i, does lactose need to be present for the gene of interest to be expressed?

I am growing E. coli transformed with the plasmid pUC19 with an insert of an enzyme in rat brain between the mentioned cut sites (EcoO109i and HindIII). I have isolated and created the recombinant ...
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1answer
24 views

What is the current status of human cloning?

Human cloning is a very controversial subject. I had a professor at Uni whose subject was transgenics. He had a very successful career both in industry and in academia. We were kinda close and he ...
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21 views

Isolating the gene of interest for protein production

For protein production, the gene of interest is inserted in an expression vector and introduced into a suitable host for expression. But how is the gene of interest for the desired protein isolated ...
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143 views

Best method to cure cancer as of now? [closed]

I am not talking about chemotherapy or radiotherapy. So, if it exists, what is the best biological technique to cure cancer as of now?
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14 views

Developing cDNA for RDT

Eukaryotic genes cannot be inserted in prokaryotic hosts for making recombinant proteins, since eukaryotic genes are split genes and their hnRNA must first be processed to functional mRNA before ...
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1answer
64 views

Is it possible to remove one strand of double stranded DNA in vivo?

Assume we do have a double stranded DNA sequence in human cells, say ...ATCGATATCGATATTGCAGAGCATAGCTATAA... ...TAGCTATAGCTATAAGCTCTCGTATCGATATT... Now I want to ...
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1answer
64 views

Optimizing Gel Electrophoresis: Ampere, Volts and Buffer concentrations

I am a master student in biochemistry, and I have used gel electrophoresis many times before. What I want to know is how one should adjust the mA (mAmpere) compared to the voltage and the buffer one ...
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1answer
78 views

How can I accurately measure glucose concentration in culture media?

I am trying to identify the best way to measure glucose concentration in culture media with E. coli. Now, I imagine I can use those glucose meters that diabetic people use, but unfortunately can't ...
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1answer
27 views

What's the rationale behind freezing one's eggs if cells can be cloned?

It seems to me there's a lot of discussions around the topic of somebody freezing her eggs. What I don't understand though are the following: Why would you freeze your eggs when you know that the ...
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31 views

Can aptamers be used to identify the terminal amino acid residue of a peptide?

Suppose there were DNA or RNA aptamers that bind specifically to a certain terminal amino acid residue. Let's name it aaSA (amino acid specific aptamer). For example, the aptamer binding to terminal ...
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Steps between Expression & Commercialization of a recombinant organism

What are typical steps that follow after one has successfully expressed a hetrologous gene in a host organism before one has a viable industrial process for the metabolite expressed? Let's take E ...
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24 views

Transgenic Plant-Gene source for introduction into host organism

Let's say the plant-gene itself is known, i.e. the exact neucleotide sequence is available in a gene bank (originally sequenced from a tree sample extracted RNA). Previous work has already successfuly ...
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Is it possible to separate the binding and catalysis of an enzyme in two steps?

Is it possible to do the following: Enzyme E binds to its substrate S without catalysis; Add a controllable stimulus, such as light, adding or removing chemicals; The enzymatic reaction is triggered ...
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2answers
129 views

Alternatives to PCR

PCR uses cycles of heating and cooling to denature the strands, calling for special thermostable DNA polymerases. In a cell, during replication, Helicase unwinds the DNA without the requirement of ...
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39 views

Plasmid Expression Vector [closed]

If I am going to transform a plasmid into a bacterium, which will then be fed to a C. elegans, the expression vector needs to be bacterial correct? The other option is to have a worm expression vector,...
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1answer
39 views

Bio-fuel efficiency as aviation gasoline

Can biofuels replace petroleum for aviation fuel? I've read in the news that Alaska Airlines was flying with 10~20% biofuel and 80~90% petroleum. Is biofuel efficiency comparable to the efficiency of ...
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55 views

Why is there a size limit on inserts that a plasmid can accept?

Throughout my undergraduate education I have been taught that plasmids can't carry very large inserts, but I have never been told why. Any insight would be greatly appreciated.
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E.coli division and its DNA replication [duplicate]

E.coli divides in 20 minutes and its DNA replicates in 38 minutes .Kindly explain.
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1answer
122 views

Does opening the lid of the spectrophotometer affect my results?

If I'm performing an experiment using a spectrophotometer and I mistakenly forgot to close the lid on the spectrophotometer, would that affect my results?
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275 views

How does the sticky ends of foreign gene bind with its counterpart in the plasmid DNA if positions are not matching?

Consider a foreign gene with recognition sequence as GAATTC for EcoR1. Now suppose that it is being cut at two palindromic sequence to form sticky ends. Here the sticky ends are formed such that ...
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190 views

How does NHEJ cause indels?

I was reading up on CRISPR-cas9 and how it works and I am having trouble wrapping my head around how NHEJ to repair the DSB can cause indels to occur. Shouldn't the NHEJ just stick the two strands of ...
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Can any enzyme be produced?

After reading about how recombinant insulin is produced, the following question occured to me. Does the current level of technology allow any enzyme to be produced in a similar way? As I see, ...
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70 views

If a given DNA oligo is an aptamer, will the corresponding RNA oligo with the same sequence be an aptamer aswell?

Functionality of aptamers depends upon the oligo's sequence and secondary structure. So, if I take a DNA aptamer and make an RNA oligo of the same sequence (T replaced with U obviously), will this RNA ...
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65 views

How to synthesize and isolate single stranded cDNA from an RNA template?

I would like to have pure single stranded cDNA of my choice. I am thinking of reverse transcription from RNA (obtained by in vitro transcription), degrading RNA from RNA-DNA hybrid with RNase-H, ...
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75 views

Use of Gene Guns

Gene guns (biolistic particle delivery systems) use gold or tungsten atoms coated with plasmid DNA and bombard it on cells. Their use, as far as I understand, is mostly limited to plant cells. From ...
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18 views

Colormetric assay for a phenol product?

I am working on an assay for phenol products created by a colony of bacteria. I have searched up a paper that involves gibbs reageant but the protocol is kind of unclear. Does any of you know where I ...
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40 views

RNAi in nematode resistant plants

Background : Certain plants have been genetically engineered to have sense-antisense gene of a parasitic nematode. The dsRNA produced by the plant then inactivates the mRNA produced in the nematode, ...
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42 views

Why does bacillus thuringiensis produce bt toxin?

Background : B.thuringiensis produces an inactive crystalline toxin during sporulation which when ingested by an insect, gets activated and causes pore formation in gut , subsequently leading to death ...
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83 views

What is enrichment? [closed]

Could someone please clarify, in layman's terms, what enrichment means? I'm currently looking at MACS and peak calling. Repeated mentions of "enriched" or "enrichment". Thanks.
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253 views

Is there a protocol for freezing and thawing Bacillus subtilis cells?

There is a book that says to store Bacillus spores in 50% glycerol at -70 degrees Celsius (doesn't mention if the 50% is final concentration or not). But from what I know, the cells themselves can be ...
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1answer
81 views

What is a new biotechnology issue? [closed]

I'm looking for any new biotechnology issue related to Biochemistry, Metabolic processes, molecular Genetics, or other relevant fields. If anyone knows of an issue that has solid resources around I'd ...
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1answer
82 views

How do I make conclusions from the autoradiograph of a Southern blot?

Here's another question taken from "Concepts of Genetics," Klug et al (10ed), revolving around a paternity test. PCR and a Southern blot were carried out in order to determine whether 3 chimpanzees (...
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332 views

Ethanol production by fermentation?

As bacteria are involved in the production of ethanol through fermentation and ethanol is also used as antiseptic that kills bacteria, so how and why bacteria are involved in the synthesis of such ...
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2k views

How to increase the shelf life of yogurt without refrigeration?

When we make yogurt at home and do not refrigerate it, it will become sour because of conversion of lactose into lactic acid by Lactobacillus bacteria, but this does not happen in case of Nestle's ...
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33 views

How are Stem Cells Produced for Stem Cell Based Therapies?

I was doing an initial search on google but couldn't come up with anything I'm looking for. I know were stem cells come from and a bit about their levels of differentiation. For example, embryonic ...
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45 views

Oligonucleotide purification with desalting

I have ordered 36bp oligonucleotides that anneal to each other and create sticky ends to be cloned in a vector afterwards. I have tried cloning many times with different methods and I failed. Now I ...
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1answer
36 views

Telomere and its effect on aging

The cloned sheep, Dolly, was said to have died very soon because the cells used to create it were taken from an adult sheep with an aged telomere. Why doesn't this happen with humans? Why aren't we ...
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Nutritious protein substance for vitamin enhanced crop?

I am not a bio or science major, but we have a subject, like an elective on biotechnology and we were tasked to think of a product that hasn't been invented yet. My groupmates and I thought of a ...
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1k views

How are we able to find the specific sites at which DNA binding proteins bind?

We know that some DNA binding proteins are site specific, that is they recognise and bind to a specific nucleotide sequence. My question is how can we precisely tell at which sites they bind? Is it ...
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Superpatients for Cancer resistance

I was reading an article on MIT Technology review about superpatients for low cholesterol that got me thinking whether such patients exist for cancer. The article is http://www.technologyreview.com/...
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113 views

Need help in codon optimization

I want to chemically synthesize a GFP gene for expressing in rice.I am using the IDT Codon Optimization program and found that not all the codons are 100% optimized. Some of them are the 2nd or 3rd in ...
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52 views

How can site-directed mutagenesis be used to suppress the production of anti-antibodies?

In a previous post of mine, I asked how to supress the creation of anti-antibodies in vivo. In the answer, it was mentioned that site-directed mutagenesis could be used. Currently, I can't find mcuh ...
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28 views

Would biotechnology in agriculture actually decrease biodiversity, as many people say? Does it have to?

I've heard the claim that because farmers would be using the same seed, you would end up with an entire crop population that could be susceptible to a disease. Like if you had a diverse population of ...
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How to inhibit formation of specific antibodies (to antisera)?

Is there a way to inhibit an antibody response to a specific antigen using immunosupression? I am interested in reducing the anti-antibody formation to animal antibodies such as murine antibodies in ...