Biotechnology is a field of biology which utilizes biological systems like microorganisms to produce valuable products, such as biofuels, drugs, and vaccines.

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Optimizing Gel Electrophoresis: Ampere, Volts and Buffer concentrations

I am a master student in biochemistry, and I have used gel electrophoresis many times before. What I want to know is how one should adjust the mA (mAmpere) compared to the voltage and the buffer one ...
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36 views

How can I accurately measure glucose concentration in culture media?

I am trying to identify the best way to measure glucose concentration in culture media with E. coli. Now, I imagine I can use those glucose meters that diabetic people use, but unfortunately can't ...
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Unable to extract poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) in powdered form from bacteria

I am presently working on poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) production from bacteria. I am unable to extract PHB in powdered form even after repeated attempts. The procedure used by me is pelleting the ...
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1answer
25 views

What's the rationale behind freezing one's eggs if cells can be cloned?

It seems to me there's a lot of discussions around the topic of somebody freezing her eggs. What I don't understand though are the following: Why would you freeze your eggs when you know that the ...
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24 views

Can aptamers be used to identify the terminal amino acid residue of a peptide?

Suppose there were DNA or RNA aptamers that bind specifically to a certain terminal amino acid residue. Let's name it aaSA (amino acid specific aptamer). For example, the aptamer binding to terminal ...
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3 views

Steps between Expression & Commercialization of a recombinant organism

What are typical steps that follow after one has successfully expressed a hetrologous gene in a host organism before one has a viable industrial process for the metabolite expressed? Let's take E ...
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21 views

Transgenic Plant-Gene source for introduction into host organism

Let's say the plant-gene itself is known, i.e. the exact neucleotide sequence is available in a gene bank (originally sequenced from a tree sample extracted RNA). Previous work has already successfuly ...
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24 views

Is it possible to separate the binding and catalysis of an enzyme in two steps?

Is it possible to do the following: Enzyme E binds to its substrate S without catalysis; Add a controllable stimulus, such as light, adding or removing chemicals; The enzymatic reaction is triggered ...
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2answers
117 views

Alternatives to PCR

PCR uses cycles of heating and cooling to denature the strands, calling for special thermostable DNA polymerases. In a cell, during replication, Helicase unwinds the DNA without the requirement of ...
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1answer
33 views

Plasmid Expression Vector [closed]

If I am going to transform a plasmid into a bacterium, which will then be fed to a C. elegans, the expression vector needs to be bacterial correct? The other option is to have a worm expression ...
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38 views

Bio-fuel efficiency as aviation gasoline

Can biofuels replace petroleum for aviation fuel? I've read in the news that Alaska Airlines was flying with 10~20% biofuel and 80~90% petroleum. Is biofuel efficiency comparable to the efficiency of ...
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46 views

Why is there a size limit on inserts that a plasmid can accept?

Throughout my undergraduate education I have been taught that plasmids can't carry very large inserts, but I have never been told why. Any insight would be greatly appreciated.
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15 views

E.coli division and its DNA replication [duplicate]

E.coli divides in 20 minutes and its DNA replicates in 38 minutes .Kindly explain.
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1answer
99 views

Does opening the lid of the spectrophotometer affect my results?

If I'm performing an experiment using a spectrophotometer and I mistakenly forgot to close the lid on the spectrophotometer, would that affect my results?
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171 views

How does the sticky ends of foreign gene bind with its counterpart in the plasmid DNA if positions are not matching?

Consider a foreign gene with recognition sequence as GAATTC for EcoR1. Now suppose that it is being cut at two palindromic sequence to form sticky ends. Here the sticky ends are formed such that ...
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1answer
146 views

How does NHEJ cause indels?

I was reading up on CRISPR-cas9 and how it works and I am having trouble wrapping my head around how NHEJ to repair the DSB can cause indels to occur. Shouldn't the NHEJ just stick the two strands of ...
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110 views

Can any enzyme be produced?

After reading about how recombinant insulin is produced, the following question occured to me. Does the current level of technology allow any enzyme to be produced in a similar way? As I see, ...
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2answers
65 views

If a given DNA oligo is an aptamer, will the corresponding RNA oligo with the same sequence be an aptamer aswell?

Functionality of aptamers depends upon the oligo's sequence and secondary structure. So, if I take a DNA aptamer and make an RNA oligo of the same sequence (T replaced with U obviously), will this RNA ...
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1answer
61 views

How to synthesize and isolate single stranded cDNA from an RNA template?

I would like to have pure single stranded cDNA of my choice. I am thinking of reverse transcription from RNA (obtained by in vitro transcription), degrading RNA from RNA-DNA hybrid with RNase-H, ...
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65 views

Use of Gene Guns

Gene guns (biolistic particle delivery systems) use gold or tungsten atoms coated with plasmid DNA and bombard it on cells. Their use, as far as I understand, is mostly limited to plant cells. From ...
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1answer
18 views

Colormetric assay for a phenol product?

I am working on an assay for phenol products created by a colony of bacteria. I have searched up a paper that involves gibbs reageant but the protocol is kind of unclear. Does any of you know where I ...
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1answer
38 views

RNAi in nematode resistant plants

Background : Certain plants have been genetically engineered to have sense-antisense gene of a parasitic nematode. The dsRNA produced by the plant then inactivates the mRNA produced in the nematode, ...
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38 views

Why does bacillus thuringiensis produce bt toxin?

Background : B.thuringiensis produces an inactive crystalline toxin during sporulation which when ingested by an insect, gets activated and causes pore formation in gut , subsequently leading to death ...
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1answer
78 views

What is enrichment? [closed]

Could someone please clarify, in layman's terms, what enrichment means? I'm currently looking at MACS and peak calling. Repeated mentions of "enriched" or "enrichment". Thanks.
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194 views

Is there a protocol for freezing and thawing Bacillus subtilis cells?

There is a book that says to store Bacillus spores in 50% glycerol at -70 degrees Celsius (doesn't mention if the 50% is final concentration or not). But from what I know, the cells themselves can be ...
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1answer
79 views

What is a new biotechnology issue? [closed]

I'm looking for any new biotechnology issue related to Biochemistry, Metabolic processes, molecular Genetics, or other relevant fields. If anyone knows of an issue that has solid resources around I'd ...
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1answer
71 views

How do I make conclusions from the autoradiograph of a Southern blot?

Here's another question taken from "Concepts of Genetics," Klug et al (10ed), revolving around a paternity test. PCR and a Southern blot were carried out in order to determine whether 3 chimpanzees ...
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288 views

Ethanol production by fermentation?

As bacteria are involved in the production of ethanol through fermentation and ethanol is also used as antiseptic that kills bacteria, so how and why bacteria are involved in the synthesis of such ...
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How to increase the shelf life of yogurt without refrigeration?

When we make yogurt at home and do not refrigerate it, it will become sour because of conversion of lactose into lactic acid by Lactobacillus bacteria, but this does not happen in case of Nestle's ...
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1answer
33 views

How are Stem Cells Produced for Stem Cell Based Therapies?

I was doing an initial search on google but couldn't come up with anything I'm looking for. I know were stem cells come from and a bit about their levels of differentiation. For example, embryonic ...
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1answer
43 views

Oligonucleotide purification with desalting

I have ordered 36bp oligonucleotides that anneal to each other and create sticky ends to be cloned in a vector afterwards. I have tried cloning many times with different methods and I failed. Now I ...
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1answer
36 views

Telomere and its effect on aging

The cloned sheep, Dolly, was said to have died very soon because the cells used to create it were taken from an adult sheep with an aged telomere. Why doesn't this happen with humans? Why aren't we ...
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52 views

Nutritious protein substance for vitamin enhanced crop?

I am not a bio or science major, but we have a subject, like an elective on biotechnology and we were tasked to think of a product that hasn't been invented yet. My groupmates and I thought of a ...
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942 views

How are we able to find the specific sites at which DNA binding proteins bind?

We know that some DNA binding proteins are site specific, that is they recognise and bind to a specific nucleotide sequence. My question is how can we precisely tell at which sites they bind? Is it ...
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41 views

Superpatients for Cancer resistance

I was reading an article on MIT Technology review about superpatients for low cholesterol that got me thinking whether such patients exist for cancer. The article is ...
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2answers
107 views

Need help in codon optimization

I want to chemically synthesize a GFP gene for expressing in rice.I am using the IDT Codon Optimization program and found that not all the codons are 100% optimized. Some of them are the 2nd or 3rd in ...
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51 views

How can site-directed mutagenesis be used to suppress the production of anti-antibodies?

In a previous post of mine, I asked how to supress the creation of anti-antibodies in vivo. In the answer, it was mentioned that site-directed mutagenesis could be used. Currently, I can't find mcuh ...
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28 views

Would biotechnology in agriculture actually decrease biodiversity, as many people say? Does it have to?

I've heard the claim that because farmers would be using the same seed, you would end up with an entire crop population that could be susceptible to a disease. Like if you had a diverse population of ...
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97 views

How to inhibit formation of specific antibodies (to antisera)?

Is there a way to inhibit an antibody response to a specific antigen using immunosupression? I am interested in reducing the anti-antibody formation to animal antibodies such as murine antibodies in ...
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40 views

Phage base Biosensor

What kind of biosensor is made by Phages? I need a list of published paper that used Phages for make LCR(inductance (L), capacitance (C), and resistance (R) of a component) biosensor for detection. ...
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1answer
533 views

How can I get brighter DNA bands?

I amplified my DNA with real time PCR. The amplification curve shows good amplification but not a single band is observed in my gel after gel electrophoresis. What would be the possible reasons? I ...
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1answer
119 views

Will genetically modified food affect our health?

It's a popular public sentiment that - GM foods like tomatoes (flavr savr) will affect our health.. Is there any logical scientific explanation behind this?
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what is the role of ctab in plant dna extraction [duplicate]

i get good results for dna extraction by using ctab method but i doesn't have that proper information for role/function of ctab and other chemical. Anyone know, please briefly explain ......
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1answer
48 views

Cell targets of Glybera

So we know that there is a first gene therapy drug in the market out there called Alipogene tiparvovec to address lipoprotein lipase deficiency (LPLD) at a genetic level. Does this genetic drug ...
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58 views

Visualizing GFP in transgenic rice seeds?

I want to express GFP in rice as a method for differentiating transgenic from non transgenic rice seeds. I want to know if I can visualize them using a hand held UV lamp as the GFP I will be using has ...
3
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1answer
93 views

What is the Baculovirus and how does it help in research?

I was reading up about Biotechnology and the use of insects, and came across an interesting article about Insect Cell culture Techniques that specifically talked about the usage of the Baculovirus. If ...
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4answers
881 views

Appropriate Buffer for electerophoresis of DNA & Protein TBE or TAE?

Which buffer is best for DNA Electrophoresis and which is best for Protein to be have a sharp bond? Considering a higher electrical conductivity compared to TAE & TBE and the generation of less ...
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1answer
161 views

Enzyme Assay - pectinase

During assaying an enzyme at high temperature, the substrate (Pectin) is degraded by the high temperature rather than by enzyme, so, how can I minimize degradation of the substrate by the temperature? ...
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1answer
222 views

What is the expected effect of pH on the activity of a fungal pectinase?

I am working on an enzyme assay for a fungal pectinase.I assayed the enzyme in different buffers from pH 1-12.5 However,the enzyme has good activities starting from pH1-10.5. Is it possible to have ...
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What should be the distance between plant promoter and gene?

I am trying to clone a rice gene under a different endogenous rice promoter.I will be cloning the CDS of the rice gene.So I wanted to know what is the minimum or maximum distance I should put between ...