The study of plant life; e.g. angiosperms, gymnosperms, bryophytes, pteridophytes, and algae.

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Photosynthetic Pigments vs. Chloroplasts

What is the difference between Photosynthetic Pigments and Chloroplasts? I know plants have both but Prokaryotes (Bacteria and Archeae) only have the former.
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892 views

How do lilies sense day and night and open and close their flowers?

We have lots of lily flowers inside our garden. Their flowers are open in day and closed in night. How do lilies sense day and night and open and close their flowers?
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532 views

Do immature fruits perform photosynthesis?

Most immature fruits are green: peppers, pine cones, plums, lots of them. I want to know if the green is from chlorophyll in the cells. Do the fruit cells perform photosynthesis? When you cover a ...
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4answers
575 views

Is it possible to genetically modify a plant at home?

Would I be able to genetically modify a plant at home? What equipment will be necessary? I think it might be a fun change from the 'norm'. Are some plants easier to modify than others?
6
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1answer
174 views

What's a good reference for choosing histological staining chemicals?

It's often difficult to find the appropriate or best stain to use when I want to examine a new type of tissue. I think that's partly because many histological techniques were developed a long time ...
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1answer
449 views

Regulation in plants bearing cleistogamous and chasmogamous flowers

In most plants bearing cleistogamous flowers, chasmogamous flowers are also borne by the plants. For example, Viola, Oxalis and Commelina contain both these kinds of flowers.( I am unaware of a ...
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79 views

What mechanisms tell temperate trees when to drop leaves?

I've been looking around and cannot find a definite answer on what it is that tells trees to change their metabolism and drop leaves. I see that such activity is called Deciduous. What interests me ...
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3answers
145 views

Why are there no tree-like plants that grow in lakes?

Looking at aerial photos of boreal forests, with dense woods clear-cut by quiet lakes, I wondered why exactly are the woods so clear-cut at the edge of water? Why won't trees develop adaptations that ...
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1answer
42 views

What is the name of this plant with many purple blooms with orange inner parts?

I have photographed the following plant in Pittsburgh, PA. It has many blooms and every bloom is very small (about 5mm diameter), purple on the outer and orange in the inner. You can see it here: ...
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2answers
106 views

Can you tell the sex of a white willow when it's not flowering?

Can you tell whether a salix alba tree will produce male flowers or female flowers by looking at it, touching it or generally using your unaided senses? If not, is there any way to do that without ...
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1answer
85 views

Photosynthesis regulation

I read about the regulation of Calvin cycle by thioredoxin which activates key enzymes essentially by converting disulphide linkages on inactive enzymes into sulfhydryls. Another regulatory mechanism ...
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2k views

How does plant grafting work?

Plant grafting is a process whereby a piece of one plant is inserted into another and results in a change of the original plant. For example, grafting a piece of a lemon tree into a bitter orange tree ...
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2answers
891 views

Does cooking or ripening reduce the concentration of solanine in nightshade?

I recall a story from one of my Botany professors where he encountered a woman picking Solanum dulcamara (nightshade) berries. When he asked her what she was doing with them, she responded that her ...
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150 views

Measuring algae growth or death

My daughter (10th grade) is doing a science fair project on the toxicity of triclosan for the algae Selenastrum capricornutum. She is wondering the best way to measure the effect, given the limited ...
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1answer
478 views

How do individual plants adapt to changes in temperature?

If you grow a plant from seed in your nice warm house, then plant it out in your temperate garden, it will stop growing for a while, possibly die, and if not, subsequently resume growth. Standard ...
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194 views

How do plants intake minerals through their leaves?

How do plants intake the fertilizer when it is sprayed all over the leaf surface as a foliar feed?
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80 views

Why does wood become darker when it ages?

I have lots of pieces of pine furniture which have different colours depending on how old they are. So, I just wondered why that is. I guess it has something to do with structures and chemical ...
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1answer
54 views

Why are some plants frost tender?

Why do some plants have the ability to stand frost, while others can't? Does it have to do with the size of the water vacuoles in the plant cells?
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66 views

How are Raunkiær's plant life forms viewed today?

At the beginning of the 20th century, Raunkiær proposed a typology of plant life-forms based on where they bear their buds, roughly as: cryptophytes: belowground hemicryptophytes: at the surface ...
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61 views

Shade-loving Plants

In shade-loving plants, the light compensation point is reached at low irradiance because: A. Leaves have more chlorophyll per reaction center B. These plants have greatly reduced respiration rates ...
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65 views

Why can't a Corn have 13 rows of seeds?

Every time before eating a corn, I count its lines. I would always find 12 or 14 rows of seeds but never 13. Is there any biological/scientific reason behind this?
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2answers
210 views

What determines the autumn leaf color?

It is autumn out there. Green, brown, red, yellow, and mixed-colored leaves drop from the trees to the ground. What determines the colors of the leaves? Wikipedia tells me Leaf senescence is the ...
4
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1answer
127 views

How does a pine cone open?

When a pine cone is wet, it remains closed. However, when it's dry it opens again. From the perspective of physics or biomechanics, what is the mechanism that allows a pine cone to open and close as ...
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2answers
111 views

Is it possible to grow any kind of plant soilless (hydroponics)?

Hydroponics is a subset of hydroculture and is a method of growing plants using mineral nutrient solutions, in water, without soil. [wikipedia] My question is if is it possible to grow any kind of ...
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1answer
58 views

How much cost would artificial pollination add to common products (fruits etc.)?

I've read about ecosystem services and their possible valuation - statements like "honeybee pollination service in the US is worth 1.6 billion dollars". Is data available on how this would affect the ...
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2answers
263 views

Why is the floral biodiversity of grazed grassland higher than that of mown grassland?

I have collected some data to compare the biodiversity of a field in which the plagioclimax is maintained by machine mowing with a field in which the plagioclimax is maintained by sheep grazing. What ...
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2answers
1k views

Online course on Plant Taxonomy and Physiology

After following a course in Permaculture, I realised that if I want to get serious about it, I need to be able to distinguish plants. So I am looking for an online Video course on Plant Taxonomy and ...
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315 views

What is the largest perennial herbaceous plant?

What is the largest perennial herbaceous plant? My guess would be some kind of banana or bamboo.
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125 views

Sexual Differentiation in Monoecious plants with unisexual flowers

In monoecious plants having unisexual flowers (eg Zea Mays, Ricinus Communis etc), there must be some mechanism as to produce two sexually distinct flowers from the same genotype. Since both the type ...
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1answer
116 views

Function of papain in papaya

I know that papain is a proteolytic enzyme present in papaya. It is often used to tenderise meat. What is the function of papain in papaya? Is papain sweet? Does it function as an antibiotic?
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2answers
137 views

Plant identification?

Can anyone identify the plant below? It's in a backyard in Pennsylvania, and the photo was taken today.
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1answer
11k views

What factors affect the rate of transpiration in plant leaves?

I'm trying to get my head around factors which affect transpiration in leaves. For example, how would applying petroleum jelly to the surface of plant leaves affect their rate of transpiration? I ...
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1answer
64 views

Gender and age-specific mutation rate in plants

Background General concept According to Cochran and Harpending (2013), mothers transmits on average a number $x$ of new mutations to their offspring. This number $x$ is independent of the age of the ...
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1answer
67 views

H₂S as a source of electrons for plants

The first electron source for plants was H2S, but now most modern plants use H2O as an electron source. What is the advantage of using H2O instead of H2S?
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26 views

How does MSMA kill crabgrass with only minimal damage to lawn grasses?

I use MSMA (Monosodium methyl arsenate) to kill crabgrass in lawns. I am not certain of the mode of action. How does this chemical work? How does it target the annual grassy weeds, without damaging ...
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24 views

Why doesn't Clopyralid damage cool season lawn grasses?

I use Clopyralid (3,6-dichloro-2-pyridinecarboxilic acid) to kill broad leaved weeds in lawns. From my understanding, it works by mimicking an auxin which affects plant growth. Naturally this pulls ...
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0answers
84 views

What controls leaf senescence in deciduous tree species, and how can I predict it?

If I want to predict litterfall, what data do I need to collect, and what statistical model might I use? For example, I might use the following coding to record phenological stage every other day, or ...
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0answers
42 views

Serological assays not detecting native proteins

Is there anyone out there who has done much work with serological assays? We have antiserum for a manufactured viral protein but no luck so far getting it to detect native protein (unless today's ...
3
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1answer
361 views

Family tree for edible plants?

I am looking for a family tree for plants, particularly veg / herbs / fruit. Something similar to: If it could be slightly less technical than all the Latin ...
3
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1answer
522 views

What is the name of this flower with purple leaves and orange inner part in NYC?

I've photographed this flower a few days ago in New York City: Does anybody know the name of it? (and how is the orange part called?)
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3answers
398 views

What kind of tree could this be?

This may be a strange question, but does anyone know what kind of tree this could be? I know, it's just a comic, but these trees, at “walking distance” within that comic are easily identifiable as ...
3
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2answers
76 views

What chemical or biochemical agents do plants use to inhibit each other's growth?

As I just learned, allelopathy is the action by which plants regulate the growth of other nearby plants. I have hear of ethylene is a general signal for growth and fruit ripening in particular, but ...
3
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2answers
66 views

How common is bacterial mediated transformation? In plants? In animal cells?

The most common method to transform plants is by soaking plant tissue in cultures of agrobacteria (this is not their current classification) which transfer DNA into the plants. Is lateral gene ...
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2answers
320 views

Why do plants' leaves become enlarged in low light areas?

Why do almost all plants in shade have a smaller stem structure and larger leaf than that same species grown in a well lit, sunny area?
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2answers
80 views

Convergent evolution of fruits

Many fruits are not homologous, originating from different parts of a plant. Yet they all have similar properties: Ripe fruits all have yellow to dark red color They all have a lot of water and ...
3
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1answer
57 views

Help identify this awesome climbing plant with velcro like stem

I got this plant sprouting in my window box this spring. Starting from a single seed, it has grown into an impressive array of branching climbing vines, reaching 6 feet tall. The stem turned red as it ...
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1answer
74 views

is it necessary that every theca of an angiospermic anther must contain two microsporangia

i basically don't know the procedure or sequence of steps involved in the formation of anthers but i have read it somewhere it is formed from the dedifferentiation of shoot apical meristem of the ...
3
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1answer
114 views

Are there any air-plants with parts that are edible for humans?

Are any air plants (Tillansia sp.) safe for humans to eat? I haven't been able to find whether or not there are. Pineapple is in the same family (Bromeliaceae), but isn't an air plant.
3
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1answer
138 views

Sporophyte and gametophyte

My textbook says that in both groups of seedless plants (vascular plants, non-vascular plants) the gametophyte is a free-living plant, independent of the sporophyte. I don't understand this statement ...
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1answer
56 views

What is the cause of the spots on this leaf?

On a hiking trip to the Alps I found trees whose leaves showed those spots you see on the picture. I am curious about what the cause is. Higher resolution pictures of front and back side.