The study of plant life; e.g. angiosperms, gymnosperms, bryophytes, pteridophytes, and algae.

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Why do some plant species have lobed leaves, while similar species in the same habitat don't?

Some plants have lobed leaves, like the English oak (Quercus robur), while other plants growing the same deciduous woodland habitats, and very often growing alongside oaks, such as the European beech ...
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Does the use of “var”, “x”, and/or “ssp” in a scientific name provide specific information?

What exactly does it mean when a plant has a scientific name that specifies a vairety, for example Nothofagus solandri var. cliffortioides, or when the name includes an "x", as in Populus ...
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220 views

How would a warm winter affect maple sap production?

The past winter (2011-2012) was warmer than usual. Trees are normally tapped in late February when the daily maximum temperature goes above freezing. However, assuming that there have been ...
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69 views

Why doesn't Clopyralid damage cool season lawn grasses?

I use Clopyralid (3,6-dichloro-2-pyridinecarboxilic acid) to kill broad leaved weeds in lawns. From my understanding, it works by mimicking an auxin which affects plant growth. Naturally this pulls ...
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What's the name of the fibrous strands that hold the seeds in a pumpkin?

If you cut open a pumpkin, the seeds are suspended inside the pumpkin by some fibrous, slimey strands. You can see them in the middle of this sliced-open pumpkin: I'm writing a post for the ...
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125 views

Why aren't plants' roots as diverse as leaves?

I have been doing some gardening recently and I suddenly realised that all plants have superficially identical non-woody roots of the same size from gigantic trees to small fruiting plants and ...
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368 views

What's the name of this flower?

I photographed this flower in Central Europe. I looked in online databases but can't really identify the actual flower, since there are so many that look quite similar. Can you help me? What's the ...
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97 views

What are the variables that control/influence the color of oranges(Citrus sinensis)?

I hear that Oranges cultivated in tropical areas of the world tend to be greener when ripe, is that correct? Even the same type of Orange differs in color if cultivated in California or Florida. I ...
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How can a monocot get so massive?

Some monocots (such as palms) are impressively thick and massive, yet botanists maintain that they don't have secondary growth. Why do botanists say this? How can it get so big without secondary ...
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212 views

How do plants benefit from their seeds being buried?

Common planting advice, when starting many plants from seed, is to bury the seed some small distance under the soil. It seems like most plants (at least members of class Dicotyledonae) will grow a ...
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How can Valonia ventricosa cells get so big?

Valonia ventricosa are single celled algae that range between one and few centimeters. In rare cases they can reach sizes exceeding 5cm. They range from grass green, to dark green, and some are even a ...
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If the xylem of a woody plant is composed of dead tissue, how does sapwood become heartwood?

If the xylem of a tree is composed entirely of dead tissue, then that means the sapwood is dead. If so, how does it transform into heartwood, and what starts the process?
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Do immature fruits perform photosynthesis?

Most immature fruits are green: peppers, pine cones, plums, lots of them. I want to know if the green is from chlorophyll in the cells. Do the fruit cells perform photosynthesis? When you cover a ...
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92 views

Why would a venus fly traps mouth that's still “chewing” die?

A venus fly trap produces leaves that act like traps for insects. A trapped insect is digested over several days. The trap then opens again to catch another insect. These traps regularly die off. ...
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165 views

How does Halosulfuron-methyl kill nutsedge, while leaving lawn grass and most weeds undamaged?

I use Halosulfuron-methyl to control yellow and purple nutsedge in lawns. This chemical acts by interfering with the acetolactate synthase enzyme, which quickly slows cell division, and growth at all ...
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488 views

What biological processes cause leaves to change colours in Autumn?

I am curious to learn what are the biological mechanisms that cause leaves of deciduous plants to change colour? What happens to the chlorophyll? What environmental phenomena (temperature/air ...
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104 views

Help Identifying Tree

I live in the upper southeastern region of Arizona in U.S. There's a type of tree growing in my back yard that I can't seem to identify. Its growing in an arrangement very similar to an ocotillo ...
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629 views

Why are there so many medicinal plants?

Question Quite a few plant species can be used for medicinal purposes wiki. As an example, Filipendula ulmaria is rich in acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin). An allele that produces a substance which is ...
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What's the difference between a plant and an animal?

Are there some living things where the distinction between plant and animal is blurry or unclear? I wouldn't know where to put something like yeast. I also thought of photosynthesis, but then I ...
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970 views

Are pulp cells (in oranges) normal plant cells?

Does a pulp cell contain all the elements that a 'normal' plant cell contains? I've searched for an hour to find more information about this but couldn't find anything useful. Is the pulp cell the ...
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764 views

Why do many fruit trees have five-petaled flowers?

Peach, pear, apple, cherry, and many other fruit trees seem to have flowers comprised of five petals. Assuming there is no evolutionary advantage to confusing students of trees, is there a plausible ...
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How do white Caladiums perform enough photosynthesis to support their mass?

In some white caladiums, there is less than a square inch of green space spread over the whole leaf. How do these plants perform the photosynthesis necessary to support the large leaves, the roots, ...
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152 views

Do any plants exhibit hormonal changes similar to puberty?

Just what the title states. Are there any plants/trees that exhibit a growth spurt at a definite interval after the shoot appears?
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379 views

How did these apples grow together?

I came through this pic while scrolling through facebook, and it was a bit strange to me. As far as I know apples have a corymbose type of inflorescence, in which a single pedicel ends in a single ...
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131 views

Flower identification: Moscow, Russia

I found this plant near the MSU, Moscow, Russia. Could someone help me to identify it?
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106 views

Plant identification in Turkey

What species is this ? It is a stinky, hairy plant. I have found it nearby a river. It had reached a height of 1 meter. Bloomed three weeks ago. Found in Turkey.
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What evolutionary adaptations cause trees to grow tall?

I think there are some obvious costs for trees to grow tall. Carbon and other nutrients costs, maintenance cost, energy cost (for growing, to bring water (and nutrients) up to the higher leaves, ...
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Can any plant regenerate missing tissue?

I have not yet found a plant that, when an insect eats a hole in one of its leaves, it can regenerate the lost tissue. Many plants will grow a new stem if the old one is cut, but it is not a perfect ...
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310 views

What is this plant …?

I would like to know what is this plant ? Does anybody have an idea ? Somebody offered it to me but there is no explanation about how to care about it... Some purple flowers appeared, during 2-3 ...
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How do lilies sense day and night and open and close their flowers?

We have lots of lily flowers inside our garden. Their flowers are open in day and closed in night. How do lilies sense day and night and open and close their flowers?
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Does photosynthesis occur on cloudy days or does it require direct sunlight?

In my basic science classes in high school, I have learned that during photosynthesis, plants absorb sunlight and produce food by converting carbon dioxide and water into sugar and starch. To me, ...
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What factors affect the rate of transpiration in plant leaves?

I'm trying to get my head around factors which affect transpiration in leaves. For example, how would applying petroleum jelly to the surface of plant leaves affect their rate of transpiration? I ...
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107 views

Gender and age-specific mutation rate in plants

Background General concept According to Cochran and Harpending (2013), mothers transmits on average a number $x$ of new mutations to their offspring. This number $x$ is independent of the age of the ...
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How does plant grafting work?

Plant grafting is a process whereby a piece of one plant is inserted into another and results in a change of the original plant. For example, grafting a piece of a lemon tree into a bitter orange tree ...
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156 views

Any food crops that could grow in a desert provided that they get fertilizer and water

I am working on an idea to provide nearly unlimited amounts of water in desert regions. To make this commercially viable. I would use the water to irrigate desert sand and grow crops. Given my ...
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137 views

What mechanisms tell temperate trees when to drop leaves?

I've been looking around and cannot find a definite answer on what it is that tells trees to change their metabolism and drop leaves. I see that such activity is called Deciduous. What interests me ...
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What bacteria shed harvestable energy from root zone organic matter?

I recently heard of a successful effort that harvests energy from soil at plants' bases due to apparently bacterial breakdown of wastes from the plants: Via photosynthesis a plant produces organic ...
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Do plants with non-green leaves have chlorophyll and photosynthesis?

Is it even possible that plants with non-green leaves have chlorophyll, and do such non-green leaved plants carry out photosynthesis?
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138 views

What is the name of this plant? (found in a rock)

I found it in Western Turkey.It was growing on a rock so what's it?
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579 views

Photosynthetic Pigments vs. Chloroplasts

What is the difference between Photosynthetic Pigments and Chloroplasts? I know plants have both but Prokaryotes (Bacteria and Archeae) only have the former.
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79 views

Is Asteraceae and Compositae the same family?

I'm wondering what taxonomic family sunflowers (Helianthus) belong to. Although it's mentioned it belongs to family Asteraceae it is also a composite flower. So it belongs to Asteraceae or Compositae ...
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362 views

What is the scientific name of this evergreen plant?

This plant is found in India. It is an evergreen plant. Would love to know the scientific name.
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349 views

Can someone identify this plant?

Can someone identify this plant? It was growing under my 2 year old's climbing wall / play house thing. I live in West Virginia, USA and it's currently June 3rd (if that helps from a climate ...
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1answer
59 views

Can plants grow under extreme (>1%) carbon dioxide concentrations?

Related to but distinct from this question due to the concentrations involved. While small carbon dioxide concentration increases can positively impact plant growth under some circumstances and at ...
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143 views

What is the mechanism behind plants losing their leaves? [duplicate]

Do plants that lose their leaves (i.e., deciduous plants) do so because of external conditions (e.g., drought, cold), or because of an internal process? Another way of looking at it: if you take a ...
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1answer
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How does a pine cone open?

When a pine cone is wet, it remains closed. However, when it's dry it opens again. From the perspective of physics or biomechanics, what is the mechanism that allows a pine cone to open and close as ...
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272 views

How many ATP are formed?

What is the number of ATP molecules formed during the photosynthetic processes which consume 8 molecules of $\text{H}_2\text{O}$ due to noncyclic electron transport and subsequent ...
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1answer
101 views

Viruses selected by evolution

First let me apologize in advance for I know almost nothing about biology. I had a conversation today with a family member who is a bio-computer-scientist and he talked to me about what his colleagues ...
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1answer
209 views

What is the name of this plant?

This plant was found growing in Germany. I have never seen it before, reverse Google image search did not help either. Can you help me identify what type of plant this is? Thanks, looks like it ...
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187 views

Are these birch or aspen trees?

I was just wondering if anybody could help me identify the trees in this image? I am confused as to whether they are aspen or birch, a mix of the two, or whether the brown/reddish trees are some other ...