A malignant group of uncontrollably dividing cells that form a tumour. Questions regarding (proto)oncogenes and tumour-suppressor genes should also use this tag.

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How do liver and lung metastases cause death?

Metastasis to the liver and lungs are the main causes of death in colorectal cancer.(1) I understand that colorectal cancer may have metastases. But how do these metastases cause death? Reference ...
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236 views

Do both TSG and Proto-oncogenes have to suffer mutations to cause cancer?

I'm having a conceptual nightmare trying to understand when a group of cells may become cancerous and the more resources I consult the more confused I seem to get. In order for a cell to become ...
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36 views

How to make sure a stem cell culture is cancer free?

Say I take a blood sample from an adult, extract the white cells and apply to them the process described in <this article>. Assuming this actually turns the adult white cells into stem cells, which ...
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60 views

How is the growth of benign tumors suppressed?

A benign tumor has an outer layer of cancerous cells beyond which are regular cells (I Think). The Tumor must have some kind of boundary layer like a wall where somehow the cancerous cells can't ...
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159 views

By what mechanism is Streptococcus bovis acting as a risk factor for colorectal cancer?

Streptococcus bovis bacteremia/endocarditis is considered a risk factor for colorectal cancer. What pathophysiological mechanism may link the two together?
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19 views

What is the most reliable tumour suppressing gene for NSCLC?

I was looking at some tumour suppressing genes that can be helpful in diagnosing lung cancer (particularly NSCLC - Non-small-cell lung carcinoma) at an early stage. I came across a few such as p53, ...
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55 views

Expression/Mechanism of ROR1 in healthy tissue

ROR1 is currently under investigation as a therapeutic target for cancer (1). A number of studies show different cancers may have their metastatic potential reduced, or become apoptotic through ...
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54 views

Why is it important to study chromatin to understand cancer?

Many labs and many projects in biology institutes and university departments have been starting to study chromatin. Chromatin states, chromatin interactions, chromatin loopings, chromatin behaviours, ...
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28 views

Regarding tumors and their developement

If certain cells or tissue in a specific part of the body are for some reason overworked; like the cases of severe acid reflux damaging the throat repeatedly and the cells in the throat having to do ...
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379 views

How does electrolarynx work?

I have heard that this is an effective replacement for patients who have a dysfunctional larynx, partly due to cancer. I am curious to know the inner working of this device and why such a robotic ...
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38 views

Y Chromosome in Ovary Cancer Data

I have been analyzing TCGA Ovary Cancer data. In Somatic Mutation data, there is data of mutations in all the chromosomes (1-22 and X), but amazingly, I have found one (just one) row of Y Chromosome ...
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51 views

Can we knock out Caspase-9 *and* avoid breast cancer phenotype in our mouse model?

I am trying to design a wet lab experiment with no wet lab experience to name. Right now, in my dream land, it would be excellent if it were possible to create a Caspase-9 knockout mouse (damage to ...
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103 views

Regarding cancer cells and telomeres

If cancer cells have telomeres are they different than the telomeres in non-cancerous cells? Would cancer cell telomeres be somehow 'set-up' to function almost indefinitely; in other words are 'they' ...
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339 views

Why cancer mutations do accumulate sequentially?

According to Knudson hypothesis, cancer mutations accumulate in order. Statistics says, that cancer probability increases as sixth order of age, which may mean six consequential steps to cancer. But, ...
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What are multicell spheroids?

I'm from a maths background and I'm doing some research on mathematical models of cancer. I've come across alot of literature mentioning "multicell spheroids" in the context of avascular tumours. I ...
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2answers
633 views

TCGA gene expression data are missing matched normal

I'm trying to use the TCGA data portal to get gene expression data for cancer tissues, but I'm not sure what "Tumor matched normal" means. It is unclear to me if the values are already compared to a ...
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2answers
44 views

Studying changes in DNA for causes of cancer

First of all let me say that I'm not into Biology myself... but I have a question for those of you who are. From what I've read, cancer is caused by 'faulty' DNA that behaves abnormally. Mutations ...
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105 views

Which cells will pass cancer to offspring?

Each of these types below contains a DNA mutation. Which type(s) will affect the children of the individual whose cell it is. Red blood cell T cell Skin (epithelial) cell Neuron from the brain Sperm ...
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92 views

Does increased cell turnover cause cancerous mutations?

If a certain set of cells or tissue are undergoing a lot of reproduction and repair cycles for some reason, does this inevitably lead to cancerous growths? If the mutation rate exceeds the normal ...
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127 views

Is excessive hydration a risk factor for cancer in humans?

I was reading a book on radiation biology, and the book describes the process of "indirect action", where radiation can first ionize a water molecule forming a free radical, which then may interact ...
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Functioning of BRCA2

I know that BRCA2 interacts with RAD51 to repair DNA damage. But how exactly does it function ? What are the other proteins that interact with it ?
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61 views

Connection between genes and pathways

I am reading about a paper about inferencing pathway information in cancer cells. Authors refer to ERBB2 as a gene and a pathway. I don't have solid biology background. What exactly means when we ...
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1answer
57 views

What does “rapamycin-sensitive oncogenic transformation” mean?

Can someone explain exactly what "rapamycin-sensitive oncogenic transformation" is? I get that it's a drug that suppresses the immune system but what does it have to do with oncogenic transformation? ...
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1answer
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Why is Sanger sequencing inferior for detecting SNPs in cancer cells?

I am familiar with Sanger sequencing, but at the level of an undergraduate. A lecturer of mine tried to describe Sanger sequencing as losing the sequence information in noise when used to detect ...
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1answer
39 views

Do metastatic cells still have their parent's identity?

If a liver cancer, for example, gives metastases. Will metastatic cells still have liver identity? I mean, if we mark liver cells, will we see the cancer cells too? Thanks a lot!
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About stem cells and Cancer

Do stem cells have an apoptosis mechanism and , if they do could this be used to repair the cell self-destruction pathways in a cancer cell?
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185 views

Why are haploid cancer cells not killed by immune system?

I have seen haploid cancer cells (I think it was leukemia cells) in a lab. Sperms and eggs are haploid but are not destroyed by the body because they are protected by other cells surrounding them. ...
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102 views

Are there any examples where 'magic bullet' drugs have worked in cancer treatment?

Magic bullets are drugs that can be administered on a micro local scale. In this context administration/binding would occur in or near the tumour by exploiting the different surface antigens that ...
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71 views

Why it is so difficult to treat leukemia?

I want to ask what is the reason that T315I type CML leukemia is currently untreatable. I have read quite a few papers in this subject. Why the current genetic oriented engineering drugs failed to ...
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156 views

EGFR, sialylation, and cancer progression

EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) has been intensively studied in cancer and treatments have been developed to inhibit EGFR signaling. Sialylation of EGFR is known to block dimerization and ...
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32 views

What range of dose should be used?

This is a dose-response experiment testing a new cancer drug. the darker line represents cancer cells. what range of dose should be used? I think it's 2-4 because this affects cancer cells only. is ...
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1answer
52 views

Energy metabolism in Cancer cells

The TCA cycle intermediate Isocitrate dehydrogenase commonly undergoes point mutations in cancers. This allows IDH to reduce a-Ketogluterate to 2Hydoxygluterate, causing a reduction in pVHLs ability ...
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39 views

Regarding the apoptosis mechanisms in cells and cancer

If all the cells in a cancerous tumour had their apoptosis mechanisms 'turned back on' or reactivated or repaired by some 'yet to be discovered' process would this cause the tumour to 'self destruct' ...
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1answer
184 views

Are cell lines potentially dangerous?

More specifically, if a human subject was exposed to, say, a human cancerous cell line (via intravenous injection or through an open wound, for example), is it possible that they would develop any ...
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36 views

Evolutionary rationale behind migration proteins

Tumor cells are able to migrate due to specific migration proteins. What is their evolutionary origin? Or are they simply deregulated?
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29 views

Subtypes of Acute myeloid leukemia

I am a computer scientist with no biological background and working on analyzing lab results of patients with Acute myeloid leukemia. They have been tagged with following subtypes of AML: AML with ...
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Best way to automatically link Gene Entrez ID with Gene Symbol in TCGA

I am trying to figure out how to link Gene Entrez ID with Gene Symbol, for TCGA dataset. So far, I have found this ftp directory with Gene info updated daily. But, for Entrez ID 728661, I have found ...
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A number of questions regarding chemotaxis assay using PBMCs

In our lab we would like to study the chemotaxis of PBMCs towards conditioned medium obtained following treatment of cancer cells with different compounds. My questions are regarding the method of ...
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83 views

Cancer cure statistics questions

I have a question about cancer cure statistics. Many of the cancer literature or databases I have come across speak about 5 year or 10 year survival rates. In this case survival means that the patient ...
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2answers
83 views

Epithelial cells and Rhinovirus

If you injected a tumor with epithelial cells infected with the Rhinovirus, would this still evoke an immune response as it would with the respiratory system? Secondly, what is the specific reason the ...
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1answer
43 views

Does homeopathic or herbal treatment of cancer have any scientific recognition?

Even though we have a very high tech society, cancer is still a serious issue. We humans still are not entirely capable of fighting cancer. Radiation and chemotherapy are still considered the best ...
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1answer
38 views

The damage of cancer cells

I read about the molecular biology of cancer, and I have a mess on my head and a lot of questions.. . My primary question is- The damage of the cancer cells is in the dna sequence or in the gene ...
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2answers
139 views

Smoking, cancer, correlation between quitting smoking and increased immediate risk

There is "proof" out there today that suggests smoking is directly linked to cancer. I cannot argue against that, for the evidence in favor appears strong, and the evidence against is lacking. I'll ...
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2answers
54 views

Why mutations in genes involved in general processes like DNA repair increase the risk of developing specific types of cancer?

For example, mutation in MHS2, which encodes a protein involved in the repair of mismatches that occur during DNA replication, dramatically increases the risk of developing colon cancer. (There are ...
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47 views

About the apoptosis mechanisms in a cell

The apoptosis mechanisms in a cell are like a type of 'self-destruction mechanism': is this correct? As with any type of complex system with various necessary functions, if it has a set of ...
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2answers
66 views

The role of antibodies interacting with cancer

I'm learning about antibodies. As I understand it, antibodies detect stranger cells/bacterial/viruses by the molecules present in their membranes. In cancer cells, the cancer cell have produce some ...
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1answer
433 views

How can the Ames test detect a human carcinogen?

Using the Ames test, we add a mutagen to auxotrophic salmonella with mutations in the histidine pathway and rat liver extract to simulate metabolism. How would we know if the carcinogen is a human ...
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1answer
38 views

Enzyme\Protein amounts in cancer

I am searching for source, that providing information about enzymes\proteins, in different types of cancers, that their amount in cell is significantly higher - comparing to normal, healthy cell. ...
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1answer
26 views

Mitochondria variability per tissue in humans?

I would like to know the distribution of mitochondrial content per tissue type in humans. I understand the simple metric that energetically active or energy requiring tissues will have more ...
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2answers
100 views

What are the differences between a benign tumor and swelling?

What are the differences between a benign tumor and an injury related swelling? And can swellings due to injury turn into a benign tumor?