The study of cells: their physiological properties, structure, environmental interaction, division, life cycle, and death, as well as the organelles they contain. Also known as cytology.

learn more… | top users | synonyms

0
votes
1answer
6 views

Epitope annotated protein

What is epitope annotted protein?? The book from which I got this term is : http://www.springer.com/biomed/immunology/book/978-1-4939-1114-1
0
votes
0answers
5 views

Sequence based method for prediction of continuous B cell epitope

What is Sequence based method for prediction of continuous B cell epitope?? What is the algorithm/procedure of this method? Can someone please explain this to me in simple language???
0
votes
0answers
27 views

Random walks in biology [on hold]

Where can I find all classes of random walks? Do you know any book or article which explain how can I distinguish kinds of random walks from each other? I know some differences between supper and sub ...
0
votes
1answer
26 views

Bacterial Cell Problem

A microbiologist has discovered what she thinks are two new types of algae. The first cell (Organism 1) appears cubic and is approximately 1.5 μm long, 1.5 μm wide and 1.5 μm deep. The second ...
0
votes
0answers
57 views

Help planning an experiment with Arabidopsis thaliana [on hold]

I am a PhD student in computer science. I have developed some interest to biology, and I would like to do a first real experiment. I have access to bright-field microscopy (Zeiss Primo Star) and basic ...
1
vote
1answer
23 views

About excessive cellular growth

When there is 'excessive' cell growth 'ordered' by the human body in some specific part of the body that is not part of the usual repairing mechanisms, does this cause extra telomere 'shortening' or ...
1
vote
1answer
22 views

Regarding cancer cells and telomeres

If cancer cells have telomeres are they different than the telomeres in non-cancerous cells? Would cancer cell telomeres be somehow 'set-up' to function almost indefinitely; in other words are 'they' ...
0
votes
1answer
45 views

Why are hard boiled eggs so homogeneous?

A eukaryotic animal cell is a complicated piece of biological machinery. Some major structures inside of the cell (see the image below) include: the nucleus, mitochondria, Golgi vesicles, and various ...
2
votes
1answer
52 views

Mechanism of Muscle Growth

According to this video (sorry for the poor reference but it represents my level of understanding in physiology), muscle grow as a consequence of repairing micro-lesions. How are these micro-lesions ...
1
vote
1answer
35 views

Can Mono-Cell or other organism self-replicate?

I have a question regarding how organism replicate them self to create an other organism, We know that in animal reign, we need a male and female that will generate a new being. what I want to know ...
6
votes
1answer
65 views

Where do the electrons and protons formed from biological reactions go?

In a reaction like disulphide bond formation protons and electrons are released. These particles are presumably damaging in high levels. What systems are in place to prevent a build up of electrons ...
1
vote
1answer
30 views

Determining and Differentiating specific ATPases

In respects to this certain ATPase transporter. What do i look for in respects to determining what specific kind it is out of: F-ATPases V-ATPases A-ATPases P-ATPases E-ATPases Im assuming that ...
0
votes
0answers
15 views

Immunomic Microarray

"One can measure two or more signals simultaneously determined by a single feature, i.e., epitope in immunomic microarray DNA microarrays measure one response value for each gene per sample; that ...
1
vote
1answer
40 views

peptide MHC microarray

"The recent technology is peptide–MHC microarray or artificial antigen-presenting chip. In this technique, recombinant peptide–MHC complexes and co-stimulatory molecules are immobilized on a ...
1
vote
0answers
22 views

recombinant peptide MHC complex

What is recombinant peptide-MHC complex??? Recombinant DNA means "to bring together genetic material from multiple sources, creating sequences that would not otherwise be found in biological ...
4
votes
2answers
65 views

Transmembrane Protein Problem

Problem A transmembrane protein has 1000 aa. The 5th aa is found on the external side of the cell membrane. It interacts with the aqueous environment outside the cell. Amino acid 90 is inside the ...
4
votes
1answer
46 views

How fast cancer cells divide, compared to normal cells

This question suggests that we have, on average, 50-70 billion cell divisions per day. I just read that cancer cells divide more often (therefore more prone to radiation). I am wondering, for a ...
2
votes
1answer
19 views

epitope prediction/ mapping

B-CELL EPITOPE PREDICTION Regarding this article: "Such a molecule can be synthesized or, in case of a protein, its gene can be cloned into an expression vector."----- is a particular line in ...
2
votes
0answers
17 views

Regarding cellular self-destruction

I heard and read telomere 'health' or 'length' ( if that's right ) has alot to do with cell 'health'. If telomere 'abilities' are 'restored' to a 'healthier' status then the cell it is in functions as ...
-2
votes
1answer
36 views

What is hTAP?? Please help

Could not find a single article regarding this. What is hTAP? Tap is Transfer associated protein, that I know, but what is hTAP??(I have not studied biology since last 8 years and now I am going ...
0
votes
1answer
39 views

Knowledge about Organelles

As we know, there are various organelles present inside a cell. Let's consider mitochondria for example. My questions are -> Do we understand the composition, structural and functional features of ...
2
votes
1answer
22 views

Difference between sequential and conformational epitope

Is the difference only in its structure? Like conformational epitope has 3D structure while sequential has a linear structure?(I have not studied biology since last 8 years and now I am going through ...
4
votes
2answers
69 views

What is MHC haplotype?

What is MHC haplotype? I did check out the wiki article, but did not understand. (I have not studied biology since last 8 years and now I am going through it because I need it for my research. So if ...
0
votes
0answers
19 views

MHC restricted peptide

What is an MHC restricted peptide? "MHC-restricted antigen recognition, or MHC restriction, refers to the fact that a given T cell will recognize a peptide antigen only when it is bound to a host ...
0
votes
0answers
18 views

Results of fermenting bakers yeast, Sugar and different categories of fruit peels

Based on this recipe I made three Jars of the fermented solution each containing: Papaya Peels Lemon+ Pomegranate peels Pineapple Peels In addition to above recipe I added 1 large tbsp of ...
2
votes
1answer
22 views

How does one determine intracellular concentration?

The TL;DR version Is there a fast way to determine what the cell environment of a particular cell (E.g RBC) is? (in terms of solute/ionic concentration) I'm not sure if the question belongs here, ...
4
votes
2answers
42 views

Are there known downsides to removing UV mutation hotspots to prevent some skin cancers (Genetic sunblock)?

Khavari et al. recently demonstrated that a significant fraction of one of the major forms of skin cancer (cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas) are associated with a mutated KNSTRN gene (a protein ...
3
votes
1answer
102 views

Integration of several environmental signals

I am looking for examples of different functions that are good fit to how signals are computed in order to respond to the environment. Let's make my question more copmrehensible with an example... ...
0
votes
0answers
17 views

Difference in structure of B-cell epitope and T-cell epitope

What is the difference in the structure of B-cell epitope and T cell epitope? Also please enlighten me with the fact of discontinuity or conformation of the b or t cell. Went through a number or ...
3
votes
1answer
30 views

SEREX serological analysis of cDNA expression library

What is Serological Analysis of cDNA expression library? I went through this article:http://cancerimmunity.org/serex/introduction/ but could not really make out. Can someone please explain this to me ...
1
vote
1answer
25 views

Complementarity Determining Regions (CDR)

Complementarity determining regions (CDRs) are part of the variable chains in immunoglobulins (antibodies) and T cell receptors, generated by B-cells and T-cells respectively, where these molecules ...
0
votes
1answer
22 views

Degenerate Alignment Analysis

Can someone please tell me what is Degenerate alignment analysis? Could not find a good article on the internet that could help me understand what it means? (I have not studied biology since last 8 ...
0
votes
0answers
22 views

TAA- Tumor associated antigen

An approach to find Tumor associated antigens is based on transfection of expression library made from cDNA into cells expressing desired MHC haplotypes. Can someone please explain what this line ...
1
vote
1answer
20 views

Microarray probe and target

In a microarray, which one is called a target and which one is the probe? the one that is added later , is that the probe or the one present in the slots of the microarray, that is the probe? (I have ...
0
votes
0answers
40 views

How does a cell compute/perceive gradients? (And which papers/books have written about this?)

I have heard that a biological cell can perceive the change/gradient of a chemical by integrating/differentiating in some way, i.e. that the cell can do math in some way. I really don't know much ...
0
votes
1answer
25 views

What roles do cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase, and epoxygenase have in signal transduction?

Besides oxidizing fatty acids to form prostglandins, leukotrienes, and epoxides, what other roles do cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase, and epoxygenase have in signal transduction?
0
votes
2answers
24 views

How is it that ionic diffusion is independent of other ions?

This question arises from the explanation of what the resting potential of a cell membrane is. In the Goldman formula, there is no interaction between different ion types. If diffusion is caused by ...
1
vote
1answer
34 views

How to measure the total number of cells in an average human body?

I have got one assignment to calculate the approximate sum total of all cells in the human body. How to tackle this problem? I know that the current statistics is $10^{13}$ cells. I wanted some hints. ...
1
vote
1answer
53 views

How to estimate the DNA density in human sperm head?

I have got an estimate of sperm head volume from internet.Like consider it as a disk of order 4$\mu$m to 5$\mu$m. Now I wanted to find the DNA density in the sperm head. How to find that?
2
votes
0answers
34 views

What does the term 'epitope mapping' mean? [closed]

Epitope mapping means identifying the binding site of antibodies on the target antigen. This means that the site to be identified is part of the antigen and not antibody, am I right?
1
vote
1answer
56 views

What is the functional significance of the difference in cardiolipin/cholesterol ratio in different membranes?

I have read somewhere that the plasma membrane has little cardiolipin but excess cholesterol whereas the inner mitochondrial membrane is rich in cardiolipin and has little cholesterol.I just wanted to ...
3
votes
2answers
66 views

positive and negative feedback

I want to know more about positive feedback in gene regulation and what the different between positive and negative feedback is and the similarity.
1
vote
0answers
28 views

Is there a classification of species based on number of different cell types?

The human body has around 200 different types of cells, according to my brief internet research. How does that compare to other species? Is there a classification of species based on that, i.e. number ...
2
votes
1answer
90 views

Mitochondria - are they really separate organisms that once merged into eukaryotic cells?

Theoretically, mitochondria are said to be a separate organism that is concerned with its own life and its own processes. In fact, it even duplicates individually. I know a similar question is here ...
8
votes
1answer
214 views

Can a bacteriophage be used to treat bacterial diseases?

Some bacteriophages reproduce using the lytic cycle which ends with the destruction of the host bacterial cell. I was wondering if theoretically this could be used theraputically to treat bacterial ...
3
votes
2answers
32 views

Concentration dependent cellular processes

Are there any famous biological processes that depend strongly on a chemical concentration reaching a particular value, like some sort of switch? E.g. if concentration of chemical x reaches ...
2
votes
3answers
556 views

DNA is charged negative. Where is all the positive charge in my body?

DNA is charged negative because of its phosphate backbone. Since charges need to be balanced (so that there are no charges building up somewhere), what is the positive charge which neutralizes this ...
1
vote
4answers
70 views

Why is too much glucose harmful?

I learned the citric acid cycle in biotechnology school and how cells work; about ADP and ATP and how the Cellular respiration (C6H12O6 + 6O2 -> 6CO2+6H2O) works. I am interested in understanding why ...
4
votes
2answers
117 views

Breakdown of energy expenditure at the level of a single cell

The metabolic rate measures how much energy an organism expends over a unit of time. Its breakdown for the human body in terms of its functions is well documented : so much for the heart, for the ...
1
vote
0answers
43 views

On the mechanisms of cellular growth [closed]

Is there such a thing or process of 'forced cellular' growth that is initiated within a biological system 'W' where it could cause cellular growth and/or repair where it is not 'normally' required ...