The study of cells, their physiological properties, structure, environmental interaction, division, life cycle, and death, as well as the organelles they contain. Also known as cytology.

learn more… | top users | synonyms (2)

0
votes
0answers
8 views

How do cells grow (ie. gain mass)?

I have some basic knowledge of the cell cycle. However, I don't understand how cells grow in the Gap phases. How do cells grow? And how does consumed food transfer mass to cells?
5
votes
1answer
66 views

How are ions 'pumped' across a membrane during electron transport?

A number of sites (including this one) that provide descriptions of photosynthesis state that high energy electrons 'pump' ions across a membrane. What is the actual 'pumping' mechanism? I've looked ...
-3
votes
1answer
42 views

Why are considered to be exceptions to the cell theory?

If I am not mistaken, the cell theory states that: All living organisms are made up of one or more cells Cells are the smallest units of life Cells arise from pre-existing cells Aseptate fungal ...
0
votes
0answers
14 views

DNA. mRNA, tRNA [on hold]

Can someone explain to me how transcription and translation works, especially the part about codes. And does amino acids has code or is it the tRNA?
4
votes
2answers
211 views

Randomness in living systems

The point of my question is not to talk about events that are uncontrolled by living organisms. My question is about controlled randomness, or I'd like to say adaptive random process. Process that are ...
-1
votes
0answers
14 views

If spore possesses 10 chromosomes with 20 picogram DNA then calculate the amount of DNA in prophase II?

Options : a) 20 b) 10 c) 40 According to me, it should be 20 because a cell in prophase II is haploid after completing meiosis I reduction division. Also, spores are haploid, so amount of DNA should ...
0
votes
0answers
14 views

Wrong amount of Glycerol for medium

I need to make agar plates, usually I add 2.5 ml of Glycerol per bottle but I am not sure if I made a mistake and I added 0.5 ml to one bottle and 3 ml to the other one.Would I see diferences if I ...
0
votes
0answers
18 views

Production of energy in the form of ATP is concerned with?

Following are the options : a) Mitochondria b) Elaioplast c) Chloroplast d) Preoxisome e) Golgi Bodies Answer 1 - a) and b) Answer 2 - a) , c) and d) According to me , the answer is 2 because due ...
0
votes
0answers
15 views

What information do bipolar cells encode?

Short version: I don't see what information on-centre bipolar cells are actually capturing. Longer: Actually, the question could be extended to on-centre retinal cells as well, but I'll focus on ...
0
votes
0answers
18 views

Synthetic biology: examples of cell orientation driven by genes or genetic modification

First of all, forgive for the naive question. I know that genes can drive the shape of cells, as the sickle-shaped red blood cells. On the spirit of synthetic biology or tissue engineering, does ...
1
vote
1answer
44 views

Cell biology books

I'd like to know, what is the best list of books for non-biologist to understand, how signalling between organels is organized inside of eukaryotic cells. I really want to get how cell as separate ...
0
votes
1answer
48 views

Electron Transport Chain in Mitochondria [closed]

I was researching cellular respiration, and this is a rather confusing part. I need help understanding the purpose of Complex II and how the ATP Synthase generates the energy to turn ADP to ATP.
-1
votes
0answers
18 views

Structure of cell membrane [closed]

There is a small gap between the 2 protein channels in the structure of the cell membrane. Is that gap the plasmodesmata in (plants) or desmosome in (animals)?
-1
votes
0answers
10 views

Organization braincells [closed]

Why do microchips have a flat architecture, in contrast to neurons, and why is the energy supply of chips not divided over all the parts of the microchips, as it is in neurons?
7
votes
1answer
339 views

Is this a grass cell?

I found this picture online claiming it was a grass cell. Clearly it is a cross section image but I was hoping you could tell me if this is actually grass, or something else if anything.
3
votes
0answers
58 views

What Chemical Trigger Causes Ectomycorrhiza To Change From Asexual To Sexual?

I want to know the trigger behind the change of asexual to sexual ectomycorrhiza when symbiosis with a tree root is formed. As ectomycorrhiza attaches itself to a root, it forms a relationship wherein ...
0
votes
1answer
41 views

Maintenance of Diploid chromosome number at mitosis

I'm just not understanding this: A regular human cell is diploid - because it has 46 chromosomes, in 23 pairs. So that means that when the cell undergoes mitosis, it will still have the full ...
5
votes
1answer
36 views

Are there differing organelle to cytoplasm ratio in animal cells?

Could anyone provide me with examples of cells with high organelle to cytoplasm ratios (heavily packed), and examples of cells with low organelle to cytoplasm ratios (sparsely packed)?
1
vote
0answers
20 views

Barcode exchange between neighbouring cells

I am currently interested in equipping animal cells in a tissue with individual barcodes. These barcodes should get amplified in the cells (not to a cell degrading extent, of course), and also ...
3
votes
1answer
105 views

How do lipid-soluble substances diffuse through the cell membrane?

It’s said that water-soluble substances can diffuse through cell membrane with less ease than lipid-soluble substances because the former encounters impedance in the hydrophobic region of the ...
4
votes
1answer
233 views

Why is DNA double stranded and RNA single stranded? [closed]

Why is DNA present as a double helix structure and RNA as a single helix? What causes the difference between them? Why they are not the same? what is the role of these differences?
1
vote
2answers
42 views

Cellular specific mass (in grams-dry-weight per pico liter)?

What is the cellular specific mass, in units of pgDW (pico-gram dry-weight) per pL (pico liter)? I suspect there is some variability between cell types, but this variability must be limited. Perhaps ...
-1
votes
0answers
21 views

Membrane repair

Does Smooth endoplasmic reticulum play a role in membrane repair? I was reading a piece of writing in which they mentioned that they do participate in membrane repair but I could not figure out how.
0
votes
2answers
83 views

Do chromosomes uncoil in interphase II?

During interphase II, there is no S phase in which DNA replicates. However, in this stage, do the chromosomes remain wound? Or have they unwound into chromatin form, and recondense during prophase II? ...
0
votes
1answer
57 views

What are golgi blobs? [closed]

From a general google search I have come to know that golgi 'blobs'(also referred to as "golgi haze") are tubular vesicles formed during the interphase of mitosis. I would like to be reassured and ...
1
vote
1answer
32 views

How can I accurately measure glucose concentration in culture media?

I am trying to identify the best way to measure glucose concentration in culture media with E. coli. Now, I imagine I can use those glucose meters that diabetic people use, but unfortunately can't ...
1
vote
3answers
61 views

How are chemical reactions organized in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?

I realized I only have a vague understanding based on what remember from high school and I don't know if they ever really broke it down for us but: In general how do both prokaryotic and eukaryotic ...
0
votes
1answer
16 views

How is receptor production (recycling) regulated?

My understanding of receptor downregulation is that when activated, a receptor then gets absorbed into its cell, as shown in this weird video. It then gets either recycled or degraded. Tolerance ...
3
votes
1answer
53 views

How can neurons divide without centrioles?

I have read in my studies that neurons lack centrioles. If that is so, then how is it possible that new neurons are added to our brain? Does this have anything to do with memory loss?
14
votes
1answer
263 views

Why do specifically bananas go brown quicker in the fridge?

Perhaps the title should be: Why don't all fruits containing phenol residues go brown quickly when left in the fridge? Bananas go brown over time because of the oxidation of phenol residues. ...
1
vote
1answer
21 views

Thickness / size / volume of a macrophage

What is the thickness of a macrophage? From some available literature it looks like a macrophage has a 'circular' shape of radius ~10 microns. But I need the thickness to calculate its volume.
0
votes
0answers
15 views

What are the major cytological differences between mammalian and non-mammalian cells of the same tissue?

This may be a difficult question to answer, but do we have a comprehensive understanding of the structural differences between cells of the same tissue but different species? For instance, how ...
-1
votes
1answer
29 views

What is the function of the promoter in the E. coli lac operon? [closed]

Studying for a test and this is a question in the study question, What is the function of the promoter in the E. coli lac operon? The lac operon is a unit of gene expression in E. coli, which ...
1
vote
2answers
140 views

Blebbistatin effect on vesicles

Blebbistatin is a drug that specifically inhibits the assembly of myosin in the cytoskeleton. What effect would you expect blebbistatin to have on intracellular vesicles? ...
2
votes
0answers
43 views

Are all the atoms in your body replaced with others over a 30 year period?

I was reading Creation - Life and How to Make It by Steve Grand. (This is the book that inspired Jeff Bezos to start the AWS initiative. ) In it he makes the following statement: Anyhow, by now I ...
0
votes
0answers
17 views

Issues with scratch test

I have a question about the wound healing migration assay, the scratch test. I have seen several protocols for the test, but there are differences in the addition of medium with FBS (1 night before an ...
0
votes
0answers
20 views

Animal skeleton composition?

I know human bone cells are made of calcium, carbon and phosphorus, however I am curious if there are animals with different bone compositions compared to the ones of humans?
1
vote
0answers
7 views

Is EGF-mediated proliferation symmetric?

It's known that the MAPK signaling cascade (say, ERK) is downstream of EGFR in epithelial cells, and that EGFR activation can cause proliferation in some cell types in some situations. My question is ...
1
vote
1answer
21 views

What is proton leak?

I have some idea about it. Is it the wasteful back flow of H+ ions through uncoupling proteins during aerobic respiration? Thank you
3
votes
1answer
57 views

Why are plant cells rectangular and animal cells spherical shaped?

Is that because the plant cells have cell walls and animal cells don't, or is there a function performed by the different shapes? Perhaps round shapes assist the movement of cells?
1
vote
1answer
30 views

What are respirasomes?

I have read wikipedia but don't understand it well. Do we mean Complex I, II,III and IV when we say respirasomes?
1
vote
2answers
419 views

Can you Transfer Cancer Between People via Saliva or other Bodily Fluids?

This may sound like a strange question. But could a Cancerous cell be transferred from one person to another from Oral contact e.g. Through Saliva, or other exchange of bodily fluids? I know that ...
8
votes
2answers
952 views

Why are skin moles (pigmented spots) circular in shape?

I have never seen a rectangular or triangular shaped mole. Is there any reason for why moles are roughly circular in shape?
1
vote
1answer
29 views

How exactly do we get “energy” from food? [closed]

I am captivated by human biology and I'm currently trying to understand the body and its processes in a greater depth. Thank you so much for your time and consideration! :-D I'm sorry for the rambling ...
4
votes
1answer
70 views

Structure of mitochondrial ribosomes

Is the ribosome found in mitochondrion and choloroplast formed of 30S and 50S subunits as in prokaryotes. I couldn't find any information on internet concerning it. The general wikipedia page has no ...
-1
votes
2answers
32 views

Are intercellular junctions, synapses and light-capturing photosynthetic complexes mobile? [duplicate]

I was reading Cell Biology by Gerald Karp and came across a section which said- Membrane fluidity makes it possible for clusters of membrane proteins to assemble at particular sites within the ...
2
votes
1answer
29 views

Can specific B-cells be created in a lab? [closed]

Instead of creating protein sequences, could that stepped be skipped and just have B-cells created to manufacture a particular type of immunity?
7
votes
1answer
190 views

How Do Large Ocean Viruses Form Their Own Organelles?

Several large viruses (Arslan 2011) form their own organelles within the amoebae they invade. How do these organelles form? Reference: Arslan, D., Legendre, M., Seltzer, V., Abergel, C., Claverie, ...
2
votes
1answer
335 views

Plastid and mitochondria

I am not a biologist, so please bear with me for this basic question. Although I tried googling, I am confused. What is the difference between plastids, chloroplasts and mitochondria? Are there any ...
7
votes
1answer
628 views

How to Design an siRNA Experiment?

I'm going to undertake an siRNA experiment soon, but I have only read about them. I want to address the role an enzyme plays in processing a protein. From what I understand, I will need to pick two ...