The study of cells: their physiological properties, structure, environmental interaction, division, life cycle, and death, as well as the organelles they contain. Also known as cytology.

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Why did multicellular organisms develop when a single cell can survive on its own?

Since unicellular organisms can survive, why would there be development of multicellular organisms?
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1answer
14 views

Why did eukaryotic cells develop?

If eukaryotic cells can survive in extreme conditions, then why are their still prokaryotic organisms?
2
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1answer
42 views

Could a single cell be brought to life?

If a scientist is observing a single cell under a microscope, and then realizes that the cell has died, is it possible to bring that dead cell back to life? For my inquiry, let's assume that the ...
3
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0answers
44 views

Is it true that human cells grow in levorotation? [on hold]

I remember reading this in a popular science magazine, some 20 years ago: that in most of the living organisms, cells grow in levorotation and very few grow in dextrorotation. That means, the ...
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0answers
22 views

Is it possible to make the human cells totipotent? [on hold]

we all know humans are not capable of regenerating from a single cell. Is there any possibility that we can make cells totipotent?
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1answer
24 views

ADCs: by what mechanism are antibodies internalised [on hold]

I read that ADCs (Antibody-Drug Conjugates) act by a -mab for a particular target being bonded to a cytotoxic compound. From my high-school-with-crayons knowledge of antibodies, however, one part of ...
1
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0answers
24 views

Bacteria surviving a β-lactam antibiotic

What changes can occur in the cell wall of a bacteria for it to survive a β-lactam antibiotic? I think that because a bacteria possesses peptidoglycan in its cell wall, they are β-lactam sensitive, ...
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0answers
21 views

What percent of cells are lysed when I make my smoothie?

This is an entirely irreverent question, but it does concern biology. I'm a physicist by training so I like to be able to estimate order of magnitude. I made a smoothie the other day with milk, ...
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1answer
27 views

How does symbiogenesis explain reproduction of organelles along with the cell?

Symbiogenesis is an evolutionary theory that says that prokaryotes eventually evolved into eukaryotes (having multiple organelles and better structure) by forming symbiotic relationships with other ...
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1answer
19 views

Advantage of GCPRs over RTKs or other receptor protein kinases

My book lists two important differences between GCPRs and receptor protein kinases: GCPRs do not directly activate a signal transduction pathway. It only does so indirectly, via a G protein. On the ...
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2answers
29 views

Growth factors vs. mitogens

According to Campbell Biology, A growth factor is a protein released by certain cells that stimulates other cells to divide. and according to Wikipedia, A mitogen is a chemical substance ...
0
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0answers
25 views

Connecting nanotubes to wires! [closed]

So these nanotubes have a great deal of conductance, so can a assay of nanotubes be connected to a normal jumper wire (I conducted an experiment and it proved to be somewhat successful). Can a bunch ...
1
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2answers
55 views

Density of cells in human tissues?

Where can I find values, or estimates, of the density of cells in human tissues? Maybe an overall estimate, or distinct values for distinct tissues? Or maybe not human, but mammal tissues (which ...
2
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1answer
119 views

Difference between protein channels, protein carriers and protein pumps?

I'm revising for my biology exam and I don't fully comprehend the difference between protein channels, carriers and pumps. I know that: Protein channels do not require ATP (passive transport) The ...
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1answer
24 views

Normal cell diffusion in normal organism?

We know, that cancer cell can travel across an organism. Is this ABSOLUTELY impossible for NORMAL cells? For example, is it EXACTLY ZERO probability to find some bone cells inside liver or some skin ...
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0answers
19 views

Vitamin E Production and Sun Light [closed]

Do animals with fur need sunlight to produce vitamin E? It it necessary to have sunlight in humans to make it?
3
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2answers
241 views

How many centrioles/basal bodies are there in multi-ciliated cells throughout the cell cycle?

I thought there were only two centrioles per cell, that convert to the basal body at some point during the cell cycle. I also thought there's one basal body per cilium, so I'm not clear on where the ...
3
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1answer
49 views

HOw are AMP's “recharged” to become ATP's in a cell?

I understand that after the translation stage of ribosomal protein synthesis, tRNA molecules are floating in the cytoplasm without attached amino acids until they find the correct aminoacyl tRNA ...
2
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1answer
61 views

Which step in endocytosis requires ATP?

Everybody seems to agree that endocytosis is an energy-using process, and as such requires ATP hydrolysis. However, which particular step requires it? More precisely, which 'molecular machine' ...
6
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1answer
159 views

Is there a karyotype database for human cell lines?

I'm looking for the karyotype of a specific cell line. Some karyotype are well known, such as HeLa or some carcinomas, but some are very hard to find, such as LG2 (B cells). Is there a database ...
1
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1answer
25 views

How does the drug MBC effect the depolymerization of microtubules in eukaryotic cells?

I have tried to look for the mechanism of how methyl benzimidazol-2-yl-carbamate affects microtubules in eukaryotes, but what I found wasn't very useful: Quilan et al 1980 assert that it acts by ...
1
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1answer
51 views

How difficult is it to make a shRNA/miRNA/siRNA to silence/knockdown NaV1.7 voltage gated sodium channels in humans?

There have been various research projects that experimented with shRNA/miRNA/siRNA to specifically silence/knockdown NaV1.7 voltage gated sodium channels in small animals like rats & guinea pigs. ...
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0answers
11 views

Do you know of any scratch assay video databases?

It would be of great help for a statistical work we have been asked to carry out at our University. Thank you very much in advance.
0
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1answer
48 views

Do snRNAs exit the nucleus or not?

In Molecular Biology of The Cell (Alberts, et al., 2015), it lists the various RNAs that are trafficked through the Nuclear Pore Complex (NPC) into the cytoplasm. The list includes snRNAs, but I ...
5
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2answers
76 views

At any given moment, how much energy is stored in the human body as ATP?

At any given moment, approximately how much energy is stored in the human body as ATP in the ADP-P-bond? This of course depends on what type of cell it is and the activity of the individual in ...
3
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1answer
40 views

Can a cell start a mitosis if it lacks energy or molecules to complete it?

I'm wondering whether a cell can start a mitosis if it lack molecules or energy to fully complete it. From what I'm reading on wikipedia the cell passes most of its time in the interphase in which the ...
3
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1answer
29 views

What is the purpose of requiring two separate binding systems for the antibody response?

I've read that in most cases, B-cell activation requires helper T-cells. This requires antigen binding by both antibodies and T-cell receptors, using two different antigen-binding proteins, ...
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2answers
30 views

At which end does polymerization of microtubules occur?

My book says that polymerization and depolumerization of microtubules occurs on the + end however, I've found a note that says that depolymerization occurs on the - end. I need help please :) thank ...
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1answer
47 views

Is HSV-vector-mediated miRNA expression in dorsal root ganglia stable?

My question is on the following article: "Reduction of voltage gated sodium channel protein in DRG by vector mediated miRNA reduces pain in rats with painful diabetic neuropathy" My question is, do ...
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0answers
21 views

Effects of pH vs membrane potential within a cell? [closed]

How are these two concepts related? Does changing each result in the same effects? As in: what kind of reactions/processes would be affected if we changed the pH within a cell? Would the results ...
3
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0answers
30 views

How was gene therapy able to CURE some diseases (I guess on cells that do NOT regenerate)?

Here's where I'm getting confused... I thought that gene therapy, when done on target cells that regenerate themselves constantly, can be effective for a limited time only (aka. The achieved effect ...
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2answers
40 views

In cell division, are daughter cells identical?

I understand that after a cell replicates, there will be two daughter cells instead of one. But wouldn't one of them be the old cell that created the second one? The old cell having gone through G0, ...
5
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1answer
20 views

Constant or variable number of chiasmata during recombination?

During recombination, is the number of chiasmata consistent for each gamete and are the chiasmata regions consistent within a single organism?
0
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1answer
63 views

Do human somatic cells have 46 chromosomes all the time?

As far as I know, a human somatic cell has the cell cycle: Interphase and Replication (mitosis). In interphase the cell has 2 growth phases (G1 + G2) and a synthesis one (S phase being in between G1 ...
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11 views

How sorbitol treatment selects ring stage of plasmodium falciparum

I would like to know the basic chemistry behind ring stage selection by sorbitol. Sorbitol is used for Synchronising the plasmodium culture in ring stage. How the chemical retains or selects ring ...
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23 views

Eukaryotes and multicellulars [duplicate]

If eukaryotes can form multicellular bodies, why are all eukaryotes not multicellular? eg amoeba and other protists.
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2answers
37 views

Do chromosomes uncoil in interphase II

During interphase II, there is no S phase in which DNA replicates. However, in this stage, do the chromosomes remain wound? Or have they unwound into chromatin form, and recondense during prophase II? ...
1
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1answer
46 views

Are nucleotides at the ends of DNA stripped on aging?

I had the following understanding (now after reading a popular science article seeming wrong understanding): DNA in (regular) cells (in human and some other organisms) are protected by telomers. ...
1
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1answer
32 views

cell specialisation and their location

When we create new cells, how come they are of the 'right' type at the 'right' place? For example, when I make a new cell on my lips, it's obviously not the same as a new one in my kidneys. Is the ...
0
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1answer
53 views

Common genes and enzymes involved in pathogen entry into host

Many microbes like Salmonella, E.coli, Legionella pneumophila etc. enter host cells via cystoskeleton remodeling of the host cell. Do all microbes follow the same path or there are any other ways for ...
1
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2answers
2k views

Book Recommendations: GRE Subject Test In Biochemistry, Cell And Molecular Biology

There are probably a lot of really good answers that may vary significantly in terms of content. I'm looking for a set of books that I can read in preparation for the GRE Subject Test In ...
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0answers
230 views

Contact Inhibition of Cell Division: Signaling Pathway

The following article refers to contact inhibition of cell division in epithelial cells, specifically MDCK cells: Collective and single cell behavior in epithelial contact inhibition. In their review ...
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0answers
14 views

Ions in different cell compartments

I would like to understand the distribution of metal ion concentrations (such as Mg2+) in the different cell compartments. I tried very hard but still couldn't find such information. Could anyone ...
1
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2answers
61 views

Anaphase Microtubule Disassembly

Centromeres move toward the poles as the microtubules that connect them shorten. This shortening is due to the removal of tubulin subunits from the kinetochore ends of the microtubules. I'm confused ...
0
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1answer
47 views

Which steps occur in each phase of Meiosis and Mitosis [closed]

MITOSIS In mitosis am I correct in saying that the spindles attach to the centromeres at the end of prophase/prometaphase? (I read this in an answer to another question) MEIOSIS Does the ...
0
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1answer
39 views

Why only mitochondria and plastids?

Why are there only two unique semi-independent organelles? Why are there no others, symbiogenesis seems like it should be a relatively common thing. So do most organelles just lose all their DNA? Or ...
2
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1answer
71 views

In the video, “Inner Life of a Cell”, what's the empty space between the molecules?

In the video, ["Inner Life of a Cell"][1,] there's a lot of empty space between the proteins. Is it just a simplification (i.e. they omit smaller molecules)? If so, what are the smaller molecules ...
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2answers
95 views

Blebbistatin effect on vesicles

Blebbistatin is a drug that specifically inhibits the assembly of myosin in the cytoskeleton. What effect would you expect blebbistatin to have on intracellular vesicles? ...
9
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2answers
5k views

Why is saltatory conduction faster than continuous conduction?

How does spacing apart sodium and potassium channels allow the action potential to travel faster down the axon? This is the reason always cited for saltatory conduction and myelination, but my mental ...