The study of cells, their physiological properties, structure, environmental interaction, division, life cycle, and death, as well as the organelles they contain. Also known as cytology.

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How is it that the WI-38 cell line isolated by Hayflick in 1962 is still very much around and not affected by the 'Hayflick Limit'?

I have searched the net and I have not been able to come up with an clear answer. Edit: Here is the para quoted from Nature http://www.nature.com/news/medical-research-cell-division-1.13273 "So began ...
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17k views

Which human cells have the longest and shortest lifespan?

Which cells in a human have the longest lifespan? Which cell has the shortest lifespan?
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1k views

How does formaldehyde/PBS or methanol fixation of cells affect lysosomal pH?

The question is fairly simple - does formaldehyde or methanol fixation in preparation for immunocytochemistry/immunofluorescent staining affect the pH of the lysosomes? Some background: I'm trying to ...
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186 views

How did viruses learn to utilize the workings of a cell?

This is my first post here, so excuse me for its simplicity. Viruses can infiltrate a cell, overtake it and multiply. It has projecting fibers whose ends are shaped as kind of a "key" to a mobile ...
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4k views

Are mature RBCs prokaryotic?

Mature mammalian RBCs have all the characteristics of a eukaryotic cell except that they don't have a nucleus, they don't have any cell organelles. Does this mean that RBCs are classified as ...
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116 views

Why can't cell division happen the other way around?

Mitosis in eukaryotes happen in this order: DNA replicates and then the cell divides. Why doesn't it happen in reverse order (i.e., cell divides and then replicates the DNA)? I am talking about ...
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78 views

Is forced cell growth related to apoptosis?

Could an instance of forced cellular growth cause some cells to have their self-destruct mechanisms to malfunction or 'turn off'thus preventing apoptosis?
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3answers
696 views

How is the mRNA transported out of the endoplasmic reticulum?

In eukaryotes the nuclear envelope is continuous with the ER, so what helps it out of that?
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91 views

Domains in cell membrane

How is movement of proteins and lipids between different domains of cell membrane prevented? Why is the noncytosolic layer not able to do lateral movements between domains but cytosolic layer is able ...
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1answer
2k views

What is 'calcium conductance'?

What is the meaning of calcium conductance in ion channels. I encountered this in the following text: It was established that the µ and δ opioid receptors open potassium channels, which results ...
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1answer
57 views

Function of ER in reviewing mutated proteins

At least in the case of Cystic Fibrosis it happens that a mutant protein (which could actually function!) is held in the ER because the ER detects it as misfolded. Does this happen in every type of ...
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1answer
183 views

Why are fibroblast used so commonly in cell biology?

Fibroblasts are some of the most commonly used cells in cell biology. What are the properties of those cells which makes them commonly used ?
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1answer
264 views

Why are centrioles aligned at 90 degree with each other?

The centrioles are aligned at 90 degree with each other. What is the function of this?
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2answers
12k views

How do plant cell divide without centrioles?

Most plants do not have centrioles , so What organelle lets them multiply?
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3k views

What determines the size and shape of a cell? [closed]

What determines the size and shape of a cell? They differ at different tissues / organs/ species
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5k views

why is AUG the initiation codon?

Is there any reason why AUG is the initiation codon ? Why is there a need for an initiation codon ? Can't translation start with different codons?
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1answer
87 views

Do mitochondrial DNA have repair enzymes?

Mitochondria are considered endosymbionts originated from a prokaryote. So, do they have a DNA repair mechanism ?
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1answer
240 views

Suggestions for an experiment? [closed]

I would appreciate suggestions for my year-long AP Biology project. Such a project would consists of a standard experiment, to be done over the period of a year, so it would have >to be fairly ...
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1answer
88 views

Missing cells from immunopanning

Why do I not have any cells left in my positive panning plate after transferring from the negative panning plate during immunopanning? I am trying to purify retinal ganglion cells from postnatal rats ...
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1answer
304 views

Characteristics of life

If all of the characteristics of life are required for something to be defined as living, how can we account people or other life that can not reproduce?
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1answer
64 views

Method to inject genes into cells

The famous Hershey and Chase Experiment uses phages to inject genes into cells. In the beginning, Professor Yamanaka injected 24 types of genes into cells to figure out which genes turn a cell into ...
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2answers
326 views

Why did Fair Meiosis evolve?

How and why did Fair Meiosis evolve? I can hardly think that it provided a fitness advantage to the individual carrying the mutation. Why would it? Or did it evolve through lineage selection? Or was ...
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2answers
213 views

Randomness in living systems

The point of my question is not to talk about events that are uncontrolled by living organisms. My question is about controlled randomness, or I'd like to say adaptive random process. Process that are ...
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1answer
126 views

Cell state and cell function

I have read many papers that refer to cell type, cell state and cell function, but I haven't found an explicit definition for each of these terms. For example this paper (Brown et al. 1994. J General ...
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1answer
79 views

Botulinum Toxin

I asked on the cooking site, but was directed here. This is my original question http://cooking.stackexchange.com/questions/35726/botulinum-toxin-in-home-canned-green-beans The reading is quite ...
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2answers
71 views

The role of antibodies interacting with cancer

I'm learning about antibodies. As I understand it, antibodies detect stranger cells/bacterial/viruses by the molecules present in their membranes. In cancer cells, the cancer cell have produce some ...
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2answers
835 views

which exact mechanism triggers the first cell differentiation after n divisions?

I would like to understand which mechanism triggers the first cell differentiation after n divisions. I read previous articles on SE and Wikipedia articles on cellular differentiation and ...
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5answers
7k views

Why do cell membranes have a lipid bilayer?

Many cells have a cell membrane composed of two layers of lipids, why is it two layers and not just one? What purpose do the membranes serve?
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2answers
844 views

Beginning with centrifuge experiment

This is the first time I do a centrifuge experiment with my own centrifuge machine, it's just simple made by a rotor that can rotate the tube at high speed. As I know a centrifuge machine can be using ...
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1answer
292 views

Improving transformation efficiencies- induce supercoiling?

From my limited knowledge of science, I know transformation can be one of the hardest step in cloning, and that a large amount of research/trial and error has been done to improve on this step. I've ...
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2answers
2k views

How does ubiquitin recognize misfolded proteins?

Misfolded proteins are tagged by ubiquitin and then are destroyed by proteasomes. How does ubiquitin know which protein to tag?
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3answers
526 views

How can I create a microcapillary for manipulation of single cells?

i'm working as a diy bio. I'm finding a way to create a micro glass capillary for picking up single cells. I see this video on youtube and would like to know what is the minimum I/O diameter if I pull ...
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3answers
120 views

What do cells do when they aren't creating proteins?

I've always thought that the majority of the "work" in a cell is protein production, until I read the following. The Wikipedia article on the central dogma of molecular biology states this: 80% ...
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0answers
278 views

Coiling of chromatids during cell division [closed]

What is exactly coiling of chromosomes? I just heard about the names i.e paranemic, plectonemic, orthostichious, anorthospiral. I have ecaxtly no idea of what phenomenon is this. Also what type of ...
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1answer
3k views

fibroblast cells and fibers

I am interested in fibroblast cells in human arteries. Here are the things that I am not clear at the moment and I could not find any answer from the literature: What are the dimensions of these ...
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0answers
362 views

Can someone explain the color-changing unit (CCU) to me?

I've been physically carrying out serial tenfold dilutions on samples of Ureaplasma to work out the color-changing units (CCU). As a definition, the CCU is the highest dilution at which there is a ...
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1answer
59 views

Is every cell competent?

I would like to know if every cell is competent or if there are any cells that are not competent.
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1answer
86 views

Autophagy in eukaryotic cells

What is autophagy? How and under which circumstances is it used by the cell? I believe The reason for autophagy is some kind of recycling, am I right? But why does it occur in infections?
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1answer
72 views

Intracellular lipid transport

I know that lipids are carried around the body in the blood either as micelles or by lipid-binding proteins which allow them to be solved. Lipids can't always be integrated in a membrane though, the ...
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1answer
192 views

How do different tissue culture matrices affect background in fluorescent microscopy?

In response to my previous question, I've been reading up a little bit on poly-D-lysine, Collagen I, Collagen IV, laminin, and other tissue culture coatings that promote cell adhesion. I've always ...
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2answers
2k views

How to convince suspension cells to adhere more tightly?

I'm developing a cell-based assay in 96-well plates that requires adherent cells, as they need to be washed at least twice during the protocol. I'm using in-house strains of HT1080 cells (some ...
4
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1answer
282 views

Reason behind formation of different shapes of cell

I have always wondered how cells are modified to give them a specific shape. On what specific part of a cell does gene regulation act for giving the shape ?
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1answer
47 views

Transplantation of stem cells

During the autologous transplantation of stems cells from bone marrow to produce new blood cells why all the other stem cells other than the one obtained are destroyed?
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2answers
1k views

Can proteins move outside cells?

I am trying to learn about basic cell biology, and have what is probably an extremely simple question. So this is how I understand it so far: Proteins are made from amino acids. This process is ...
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0answers
65 views

How to use mechanical microstrainer to extract tissue proteins from human? [closed]

Background: There are many methods to extract proteins form human tissues out there. The majority of them use an extraction buffer containing variable concentrations of detergents and protease ...
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1answer
5k views

Why aren't organelles considered alive?

I'm taking a 3-week Bio I summer course, and my textbook says the cell is the smallest/basic unit of life. I asked my professor why organelles aren't a living unit, and her reply was that they aren't ...
2
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1answer
626 views

Will lipid molecules 'flip-flop' over a membrane without the use of an enzyme?

All of the references to this I can find refer to enzymes like Flippase making it 'easier' or 'more likely' that the translocation will occur, rather than actually make it possible. The following is ...
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2answers
7k views

Why is saltatory conduction faster than continuous conduction?

How does spacing apart sodium and potassium channels allow the action potential to travel faster down the axon? This is the reason always cited for saltatory conduction and myelination, but my mental ...
9
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1answer
675 views

Why are certain aneuploidies more common?

Certain aneuploidies such as trisomy-21 (Downs syndrome), trisomy-18 (Edward syndrome), Turner syndrome (XO) etc are more common than others. I had a vague thought that it is related to chromosome ...
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0answers
40 views

Example(s) of reduced rate of mitotic progression?

Most species complete mitosis, and in particular the process of chromosome condensation, rather quickly, in a matter of minutes. Are there any known species that undergo mitoses with substantially ...