The study of cells, their physiological properties, structure, environmental interaction, division, life cycle, and death, as well as the organelles they contain. Also known as cytology.

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Artificial Synthesis of Animal Cells

If we know the elements with which a certain type of cell is composed of (I am particularly talking about Animals, and Humans more importantly), why aren't we able to make cells on our own then, in a ...
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16 views

Do hydrogen ions contribute to water potential?

I was thinking about lysosomes and how they maintain an acidic pH inside themselves by pumping H+ ions from the cytosol. Do hydrogen ions set up a concentration gradient that causes water to move by ...
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1answer
15k views

Why is ATP the preferred choice for energy carriers?

Why is ATP the most prevalent form of chemical energy storage and utilization in most cells?
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2answers
4k views

Does endo- and (or) exocytosis require energy? Do they belong to active / passive transport?

I expect vesicle formation and fusion to require energy input; however, I'm not sure about which of endocytosis and exocytosis require energy and how they use the energy input. Do they belong to ...
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1answer
40 views

Is there a difference in cytoplasmic pH between prokaryotes and eukaryotes?

The cytosolic pH in human cells is around 7.4, but fluctuates as the cell is replicating. Prokaryotes and eukaryotes are vastly different in many ways. One thing they share is cytoplasm. Is there any ...
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1answer
220 views

During the process of correcting mutations via gene therapy, is the defective gene removed?

Just recently started learning about gene therapy, many websites explain that the corrected DNA can be added to the genome using a vector and all that. I just don't understand what happens to the ...
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1answer
62 views

An experiment to test if a bacterial resistance gene is on the plasmid or chromosome?

So I have an E.coli strain phenotypicall resistant to the antibiotics ampicillin and rifampicin. How do I test if the AmpR gene is carried on a plasmid and not on the chromosome? In summary, I ...
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38 views

Are there non-essential cell organelles? [closed]

Suppose an eukaryotic animal cell would have to choose to loose an organelle, akin to the voting system of the TV show Big Brother. Which organelle would be the least important to the cell and ...
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1answer
102 views

In the video, “Inner Life of a Cell”, what's the empty space between the molecules?

In the video, "Inner Life of a Cell" there's a lot of empty space between the proteins. Is it just a simplification (i.e. they omit smaller molecules)? If so, what are the smaller molecules supposed ...
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24 views

How quickly does plant cells regenerate? [closed]

This is a question from my Biology class homework? I've looked online, but I can't find the answer.
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1answer
47 views

Why does protein kinase C activated by different means have different effects?

I could be way off base but I think I remember learning that Protein Kinase C has some effects when activated by one pathway and other effects when activated by another. How does this happen? Is it ...
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13 views

Why do kupffer cells not attack sporozoites of malaria?

During malaria, why don't kuppfer cells (hepatic macrophages) attack the plasmodium and stop schizogony, thus saving us from the disease?
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1answer
28 views

Is there a way to determine how many times a given cell divided?

Do cells divide into exact duplicates? If not, is there a way to determine how many times a given cell divided?
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1answer
27 views

What is the name of the property of viruses can activate a second time, with different symptoms?

The Varicella zoster virus causes chickenpox in children and shingles in adults. It appears after the initial infection, it can go dormant in the nerve, and reactivate itself decades later. In ...
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1answer
36 views

What is the name of the property of viruses that can go dormant in the host for 30 years?

The Varicella zoster virus causes chickenpox in children and shingles in adults. It appears after the initial infection, it can go dormant in the nerve, and reactivate itself decades later. My ...
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0answers
38 views

What is the name of the category of viruses that affect only one side of the body?

The Varicella zoster virus causes chickenpox in children and shingles in adults. When the virus attacks as shingles, one of its distinguishing characteristics is that it only affects one side of the ...
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0answers
8 views

HSC Cycling Rates

I would like to know how often human hematopoietic stem cells go into cycle in the bone marrow niche (with a paper reference). I have heard they cycle 1-2 times per year but has anyone robustly ...
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1answer
36 views

How does symbiogenesis explain reproduction of organelles along with the cell?

Symbiogenesis is an evolutionary theory that says that prokaryotes eventually evolved into eukaryotes (having multiple organelles and better structure) by forming symbiotic relationships with other ...
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1answer
44 views

Lookup for transporter locations in humans

I am interested in several transporters and cotransporters (eg SLC12A1/2 and many others), more precicely, in (human) organism that are made of cells containing those transporters. So does anyone know ...
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1answer
21 views

Is there a resource that has quantitative data about cell proteins?

I am a MSc student working in mathematical biology. In my thesis I am modelling diffusion of a protein that can bind to cell surface receptors. In order to simulate this I need some rough figures ...
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1answer
53 views

How was gene therapy able to cure diseases through the transformation of actively dividing cells?

I thought that gene therapy, when performed on target cells that regenerate themselves constantly, can be effective for a limited time only. I.e., the effect gradually wears off after a while, ...
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1answer
29 views

Advantage of GCPRs over RTKs or other receptor protein kinases

My book lists two important differences between GCPRs and receptor protein kinases: GCPRs do not directly activate a signal transduction pathway. It only does so indirectly, via a G protein. On the ...
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0answers
20 views

What is the site on an enzyme that binds either exitatory or inhibitory molecules? [closed]

A site on an enzyme where either exitatory or inhibitory molecules can bind is called a(n): A) electron transport site B) active site C) coenzyme D) metabolic pathway E) allosteric site If you ...
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1answer
31 views

Are axons capable of endocytosis?

There is evidence for the uptake of toxic substances like prions from the cell bodies of neurons via endocytosis. There is also evidence for prion deposition in white matter. But I haven't been able ...
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33 views

Why white Hair Turns Dark Again [closed]

I am 73 years old extremely healthy according to my blood tests and yet my hair is turning dark at the roots. I take no medications since I do not have need of any whatsoever so why this strange back ...
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1answer
40 views

Why does ESR have to be waited for one hour?

It is said that the length of the column of clear plasma in a narrow tube left by erythrocytes which gradually sediments after one hour is the measure of ESR(erythrocyte sedimentation rate). Its ...
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1answer
57 views

How is CO2 related to acidity in plant cells?

Why does increase in concentration of CO2 in a plant cell increase the acidity of the cell sap? Thank you
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212 views

Is there a karyotype database for human cell lines?

I'm looking for the karyotype of a specific cell line. Some karyotype are well known, such as HeLa or some carcinomas, but some are very hard to find, such as LG2 (B cells). Is there a database ...
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1answer
32 views

How does the drug MBC effect the depolymerization of microtubules in eukaryotic cells?

I have tried to look for the mechanism of how methyl benzimidazol-2-yl-carbamate affects microtubules in eukaryotes, but what I found wasn't very useful: Quilan et al 1980 assert that it acts by ...
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37 views

Which chromosomes are J-shaped? [closed]

Are acrocentric chromosomes J-shaped or Sub-metacentric chromosomes J-shaped? I'm confused as different sources have different opinions. My text book considers acrocentric as J shaped and the ...
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1answer
67 views

Can soap kill cockroaches and/or ants? If so, how? [duplicate]

Is it possible to use dishwashing soap as an alternative insecticide? How would that and what are the components of the dishwashing soap that would kill the insect?
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1answer
39 views

What's the mixture of plasma and haemoglobin called [closed]

I know of oxyhaemoglobin but the mixture of plasma and haemoglobin in the blood gives what?
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1answer
51 views

What's the mixture of carbon and haemoglobin called [closed]

I know of oxyhaemogloblin , the mixture of oxygen and haemoglobin , but carbon and haemoglobin combination is what's confusing
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1answer
856 views

Can an organism exist as a single cell but come together as multi-cellular during certain times?

I am trying to remember a particular segment from a BBC special, in which there was single cellular species. However, at certain times all the individual cells came together to form a structure, not ...
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1answer
38 views

Is there some research paper which focus on the influence of using cancer cell as experimental materials on experimental result? [closed]

Cancer cell is unstable cell and high variation, but there are many experiment use cancer cell as experimental materials. I always wonder how much influence can using cancer cell as experimental ...
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36 views

What is plectonemic coiling? When does it uncoil?

Is it the inseparable coiling of two double stranded helices (each representing a chromatid)? In early prophase the chromosome appear as coiled filaments but in late prophase each chromosome has two ...
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21 views

is there any relationship between shape of the nucleus and the function of the cell?

is there any relationship between the shape of the nucleus and the function of the cell, like in the case of leukocytes, all of them have different shapes.
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0answers
43 views

What’s wrong with a shriveled cell?

When you place a cell into a hypotonic solution, water rushes into it and it bursts/lyses. Thus, the cell dies. However, when you place a cell into a hypertonic solution, water rushes out of it and ...
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1answer
12 views
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1answer
87 views

Why it seems that principles of chemistry are not being applied in this biochemical process? [closed]

According to an answer in this question, my concept used below does not apply: In the non-cyclic photophosphorylation, consider splitting of two water molecules, then 4 e- (electrons) and 4 H+ ...
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0answers
11 views

Function of NEZHA gene [closed]

What is the function of NEZHA? What effect does it have on microtubules and PLEKHA7? What happens after it has been knocked down?
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1answer
37 views

Converting miRNA names

I need to convert all of my microRNA names e.g. hsa-miR-30e-5p to e.g. entrez gene IDs, ensemble IDs or another ID. Does anyone know a good ID conversion tool for microRNAs? (I managed to convert it ...
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2answers
55 views

Structure of Cell

Are cells spheres or ovals/circles bound by phospholipidbilayer? If they are spherical how are we able to see the nucleus through the phospholipid bilayer under a microscope?
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25 views

mRNA extraction from mice ears.

I am trying to extract RNA from mice ears and for some reason I don't have RNA when I perform the electrophoresis. I directly cut the ears and I put it in a tube with a bead and trizol. then I place ...
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1answer
2k views

What is our skin made up of?

Again, it is a basic question. What is our skin made up of? is it made up of many cells arranged in a systematic way or is it just like any layer say of a book?? what is the difference? where is the ...
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0answers
32 views

Can the activity of bacteria be influenced by magnetism? [closed]

Some organisms are tuning their direction on a magnetic field. But are bacteria also reacting on magnetic fields and can it be used in health therapie as a kind of 'antibiotic'?
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1answer
82 views

What causes swelling after impact?

Why does the head swell after getting hit by something hard? What is the liquid that forms after impact?
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110 views

Why did multicellular organisms evolve when a single cell can survive on its own? [duplicate]

Since unicellular organisms can survive, why would there be evolution of multicellular organisms?
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1answer
61 views

What do proton pump inhibitors do?

I know that sodium azide and 2,4-DNPH inhibit proton pumps. The azide is called an inhibitor and 2,4-DNP is called uncoupler. I want to know what's the difference between the mechanisms of action of ...