The study of cells, their physiological properties, structure, environmental interaction, division, life cycle, and death, as well as the organelles they contain. Also known as cytology.

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33 views

What information do bipolar cells encode?

Short version: I don't see what information on-centre bipolar cells are actually capturing. Longer: Actually, the question could be extended to on-centre retinal cells as well, but I'll focus on ...
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1answer
64 views

Do bacteria grow on pure dry glucose?

I've accidentally touched pure glucose with my bare hands (fingers to be specific), which was intended for cell-culture. I'm worried that bacteria from my skin may start to grow on the glucose and ...
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1answer
46 views

Are ribosomes assembled in rough ER and Golgi body, or in the nucleolus?

I mean all the components, such as ribosomal RNA (rRNA) are synthesized in the nucleolus, but is the whole ribosome structure assembled in the nucleolus or is it also done in the rough endoplasmic ...
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1answer
110 views

Is metastatic cancer always lethal if uncured?

Can matastases spread in different parts of the body of an animal suffering from cancer grow in a limited way, such as not to cause much more harm that a benignant tumor in those parts of the body ...
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2answers
189 views

Are Gram negative bacteria classified as such because of their negative membrane potential?

Does the membrane potential usually quoted for Gram negative bacteria (e.g., E. coli) refer to the potential across both membranes? - If yes, then does the potential fall more over the inner or outer ...
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1answer
514 views

What is the difference between organelle membranes?

Cells and organelles are contained in lipid bilayers. I'm particularly interested in eukaryotic organelle bilayers and the biophysicochemical differences between them. Many papers assume a ...
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1answer
37 views

Can you replace glucose with glycerol in cell media?

In order to feed an animal cell in process called Respiration, can I replace Glucose with Glycerol? The Equation bellow: Glycerol + Oxygen -> Water + Carbon Oxide
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1answer
31 views

Question about Enzyme Inhibition in relation to Aspirin

I've been trying to learn a bit more about pharmacology, so bear with my ignorance. In short, I see that aspirin (in part) works by inhibiting cycloxygenase isoenzymes and that this inhibiting is ...
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0answers
32 views

What a cell needs to survive? [closed]

I'm looking specifically at animal cells. I'm not sure if it needs only Glucose and Oxygen for Aerobic respiration.
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2answers
246 views

Why do mitochondria fuse together?

Contrary to all of the textbook images of mitochondria that I have seen over the years, I had just learned that the mitochondria within a cell form a dynamic branching network along microtubule ...
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0answers
31 views

How do cells grow (ie. gain mass)? [closed]

I have some basic knowledge of the cell cycle. However, I don't understand how cells grow in the Gap phases. How do cells grow? And how does consumed food transfer mass to cells?
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1answer
69 views

How are ions 'pumped' across a membrane during electron transport?

A number of sites (including this one) that provide descriptions of photosynthesis state that high energy electrons 'pump' ions across a membrane. What is the actual 'pumping' mechanism? I've looked ...
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1answer
84 views

Why are considered to be exceptions to the cell theory? [closed]

If I am not mistaken, the cell theory states that: All living organisms are made up of one or more cells Cells are the smallest units of life Cells arise from pre-existing cells Aseptate fungal ...
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0answers
20 views

DNA. mRNA, tRNA [closed]

Can someone explain to me how transcription and translation works, especially the part about codes. And does amino acids has code or is it the tRNA?
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2answers
219 views

Randomness in living systems

The point of my question is not to talk about events that are uncontrolled by living organisms. My question is about controlled randomness, or I'd like to say adaptive random process. Process that are ...
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0answers
17 views

If spore possesses 10 chromosomes with 20 picogram DNA then calculate the amount of DNA in prophase II?

Options : a) 20 b) 10 c) 40 According to me, it should be 20 because a cell in prophase II is haploid after completing meiosis I reduction division. Also, spores are haploid, so amount of DNA should ...
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0answers
20 views

Production of energy in the form of ATP is concerned with?

Following are the options : a) Mitochondria b) Elaioplast c) Chloroplast d) Preoxisome e) Golgi Bodies Answer 1 - a) and b) Answer 2 - a) , c) and d) According to me , the answer is 2 because due ...
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0answers
20 views

Synthetic biology: examples of cell orientation driven by genes or genetic modification

First of all, forgive for the naive question. I know that genes can drive the shape of cells, as the sickle-shaped red blood cells. On the spirit of synthetic biology or tissue engineering, does ...
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1answer
61 views

Electron Transport Chain in Mitochondria [closed]

I was researching cellular respiration, and this is a rather confusing part. I need help understanding the purpose of Complex II and how the ATP Synthase generates the energy to turn ADP to ATP.
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1answer
355 views

Is this a grass cell?

I found this picture online claiming it was a grass cell. Clearly it is a cross section image but I was hoping you could tell me if this is actually grass, or something else if anything.
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0answers
59 views

What Chemical Trigger Causes Ectomycorrhiza To Change From Asexual To Sexual?

I want to know the trigger behind the change of asexual to sexual ectomycorrhiza when symbiosis with a tree root is formed. As ectomycorrhiza attaches itself to a root, it forms a relationship wherein ...
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1answer
39 views

Are there differing organelle to cytoplasm ratio in animal cells?

Could anyone provide me with examples of cells with high organelle to cytoplasm ratios (heavily packed), and examples of cells with low organelle to cytoplasm ratios (sparsely packed)?
3
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1answer
151 views

How do lipid-soluble substances diffuse through the cell membrane?

It’s said that water-soluble substances can diffuse through cell membrane with less ease than lipid-soluble substances because the former encounters impedance in the hydrophobic region of the ...
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1answer
82 views

What are golgi blobs? [closed]

From a general google search I have come to know that golgi 'blobs'(also referred to as "golgi haze") are tubular vesicles formed during the interphase of mitosis. I would like to be reassured and ...
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1answer
63 views

How can I accurately measure glucose concentration in culture media?

I am trying to identify the best way to measure glucose concentration in culture media with E. coli. Now, I imagine I can use those glucose meters that diabetic people use, but unfortunately can't ...
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3answers
88 views

How are chemical reactions organized in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?

I realized I only have a vague understanding based on what remember from high school and I don't know if they ever really broke it down for us but: In general how do both prokaryotic and eukaryotic ...
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1answer
17 views

How is receptor production (recycling) regulated?

My understanding of receptor downregulation is that when activated, a receptor then gets absorbed into its cell, as shown in this weird video. It then gets either recycled or degraded. Tolerance ...
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1answer
56 views

How can neurons divide without centrioles?

I have read in my studies that neurons lack centrioles. If that is so, then how is it possible that new neurons are added to our brain? Does this have anything to do with memory loss?
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1answer
278 views

Why do specifically bananas go brown quicker in the fridge?

Perhaps the title should be: Why don't all fruits containing phenol residues go brown quickly when left in the fridge? Bananas go brown over time because of the oxidation of phenol residues. ...
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1answer
47 views

Thickness / size / volume of a macrophage

What is the thickness of a macrophage? From some available literature it looks like a macrophage has a 'circular' shape of radius ~10 microns. But I need the thickness to calculate its volume.
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0answers
16 views

What are the major cytological differences between mammalian and non-mammalian cells of the same tissue?

This may be a difficult question to answer, but do we have a comprehensive understanding of the structural differences between cells of the same tissue but different species? For instance, how ...
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0answers
44 views

Are all the atoms in your body replaced with others over a 30 year period?

I was reading Creation - Life and How to Make It by Steve Grand. (This is the book that inspired Jeff Bezos to start the AWS initiative. ) In it he makes the following statement: Anyhow, by now I ...
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0answers
20 views

Issues with scratch test

I have a question about the wound healing migration assay, the scratch test. I have seen several protocols for the test, but there are differences in the addition of medium with FBS (1 night before an ...
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0answers
20 views

Animal skeleton composition?

I know human bone cells are made of calcium, carbon and phosphorus, however I am curious if there are animals with different bone compositions compared to the ones of humans?
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0answers
8 views

Is EGF-mediated proliferation symmetric?

It's known that the MAPK signaling cascade (say, ERK) is downstream of EGFR in epithelial cells, and that EGFR activation can cause proliferation in some cell types in some situations. My question is ...
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1answer
25 views

What is proton leak?

I have some idea about it. Is it the wasteful back flow of H+ ions through uncoupling proteins during aerobic respiration? Thank you
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1answer
128 views

Why are plant cells rectangular and animal cells spherical shaped?

Is that because the plant cells have cell walls and animal cells don't, or is there a function performed by the different shapes? Perhaps round shapes assist the movement of cells?
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1answer
38 views

What are respirasomes?

I have read wikipedia but don't understand it well. Do we mean Complex I, II,III and IV when we say respirasomes?
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2answers
548 views

Can you Transfer Cancer Between People via Saliva or other Bodily Fluids?

This may sound like a strange question. But could a Cancerous cell be transferred from one person to another from Oral contact e.g. Through Saliva, or other exchange of bodily fluids? I know that ...
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2answers
970 views

Why are skin moles (pigmented spots) circular in shape?

I have never seen a rectangular or triangular shaped mole. Is there any reason for why moles are roughly circular in shape?
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1answer
32 views

How exactly do we get “energy” from food? [closed]

I am captivated by human biology and I'm currently trying to understand the body and its processes in a greater depth. Thank you so much for your time and consideration! :-D I'm sorry for the rambling ...
4
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1answer
95 views

Structure of mitochondrial ribosomes

Is the ribosome found in mitochondrion and choloroplast formed of 30S and 50S subunits as in prokaryotes. I couldn't find any information on internet concerning it. The general wikipedia page has no ...
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2answers
33 views

Are intercellular junctions, synapses and light-capturing photosynthetic complexes mobile? [duplicate]

I was reading Cell Biology by Gerald Karp and came across a section which said- Membrane fluidity makes it possible for clusters of membrane proteins to assemble at particular sites within the ...
2
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1answer
29 views

Can specific B-cells be created in a lab? [closed]

Instead of creating protein sequences, could that stepped be skipped and just have B-cells created to manufacture a particular type of immunity?
7
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1answer
190 views

How Do Large Ocean Viruses Form Their Own Organelles?

Several large viruses (Arslan 2011) form their own organelles within the amoebae they invade. How do these organelles form? Reference: Arslan, D., Legendre, M., Seltzer, V., Abergel, C., Claverie, ...
2
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1answer
374 views

Plastid and mitochondria

I am not a biologist, so please bear with me for this basic question. Although I tried googling, I am confused. What is the difference between plastids, chloroplasts and mitochondria? Are there any ...
7
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1answer
646 views

How to Design an siRNA Experiment?

I'm going to undertake an siRNA experiment soon, but I have only read about them. I want to address the role an enzyme plays in processing a protein. From what I understand, I will need to pick two ...
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0answers
28 views

Artificial Synthesis of Animal Cells

If we know the elements with which a certain type of cell is composed of (I am particularly talking about Animals, and Humans more importantly), why aren't we able to make cells on our own then, in a ...
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0answers
17 views

Do hydrogen ions contribute to water potential?

I was thinking about lysosomes and how they maintain an acidic pH inside themselves by pumping H+ ions from the cytosol. Do hydrogen ions set up a concentration gradient that causes water to move by ...
13
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1answer
16k views

Why is ATP the preferred choice for energy carriers?

Why is ATP the most prevalent form of chemical energy storage and utilization in most cells?