The study of cells: their physiological properties, structure, environmental interaction, division, life cycle, and death, as well as the organelles they contain. Also known as cytology.

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2answers
203 views

Can cell exist without Ribosomes? [closed]

Last night I came across a question that goes as follows:- Cells cannot exist without a) cell wall b) cell membrane c) mitochondria d) ribosomes I am getting confused with option B and option D ...
8
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1answer
85 views

What is the difference between organelle membranes?

Cells and organelles are contained in lipid bilayers. I'm particularly interested in eukaryotic organelle bilayers and the biophysicochemical differences between them. Many papers assume a ...
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3answers
55 views

Can a portion of human skin cells be modified in some way to generate light? [closed]

I have come across some species of living organisms who are able to emit light at whim. Can that ability be incorporated into a portion of human skin (a specialized tissue)?
5
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1answer
239 views

Chromosome and chromatid numbers during cell cycle phases

A diploid cell in G1 has 6 chromosomes. How many chromosomes and how many chromatids are present in each of the following stages? Here is what I am guessing G1: 6 chromosomes ; 6 chromatids G2: 6 ...
1
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1answer
115 views

What is the present tense verb form of apoptosis?

For example, if I want to say something along the lines of "this signaling pathway causes a cell to go through the process of apoptosis", but I want to shorten the phrase "go through the process of ...
3
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1answer
55 views

Expression/Mechanism of ROR1 in healthy tissue

ROR1 is currently under investigation as a therapeutic target for cancer (1). A number of studies show different cancers may have their metastatic potential reduced, or become apoptotic through ...
1
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1answer
41 views

What is Trypsin? [closed]

I am currently helping a PhD student in his research lab. We have been using Trypsin for the past couple of weeks but I am unsure of its purpose. I was wondering how Trypsin functioned and what it was ...
6
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1answer
133 views

What allows Valonia ventricosa cells to get so big?

Valonia ventricosa are single celled algae that range between one and few centimeters. In rare cases they can reach sizes exceeding 5cm. Weirdly, a lot of the literature covering these organisms ...
3
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1answer
67 views

What are senescent cells doing in our bodies? [closed]

I'm reading a paper that mentioned the elimination of senescent cells delays aging. I'd like to receive more information about it. The Baker study published in Nature demonstrates that targeted ...
5
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3answers
72 views

What advantage does an enzyme serve over catalysis by the addition of heat energy?

I understand that an enzyme lowers the activation energy, allowing the reaction to run faster, however I am not sure, how it may be favorable during the addition of heat energy. Wouldn't that lower ...
1
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1answer
40 views

How can I isolate live Wolbachia endosymbionts from Drosophila [closed]

I am interested to culture Wolbachia bacteria in cell line.
6
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1answer
47 views

What is a positive epitope fragment

What is a positive epitope fragment? I found one paper on the subject: COBEpro: a novel system for predicting continuous B-cell epitopes by Michael J. Sweredoski and Pierre Baldi
2
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0answers
58 views

How long can a human neuron cell live outside the body in a controlled environment?

Have there any experiments been to keep neurons alive (stationary) without preserving methods such as freezing? If yes, for how long?
3
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1answer
117 views

Which of the two mitochondorial membranes relate to bacteria according to the endosymbiotic theory?

I seached for endosymbiotic theory in Wiki and I found this about endosymbiotic theory: Symbiogenesis, or endosymbiotic theory, is an evolutionary theory which explains the origin of eukaryotic ...
4
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1answer
94 views

Trying to differentiate between the three muscle tissues with small pictures

For an assignment I have to differentiate the three types of muscle tissues in these three pictures . I'm having difficulty seeing the striations and branches etc. because the pictures are so small. ...
1
vote
1answer
21 views

Why does a tumour's genome change depending on the environment?

According to the book "Primer of The Molecular Biology of Cancer" by Vincent, Theodore and Ateven, the tumour cell is changed depending on its environment. performed genome-wide analysis on three ...
4
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1answer
40 views

Can methylation of a promoter induce gene expression in some rare cases?

Can methylation of a promoter induce gene expression in some rare cases? I've read somewhere that methylation of an intron can induce gene expression (eg. Igf2). How is that even possible? Thank ...
6
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2answers
444 views

What are the differences between cancer and tumour?

What are the differences between cancer and tumour? I mean is it in the DNA or shape or something else... And how can a benign tumour turn into a malignant tumour? The body has a lot of tumours all ...
5
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1answer
205 views

Is this a grass cell?

I found this picture online claiming it was a grass cell. Clearly it is a cross section image but I was hoping you could tell me if this is actually grass, or something else if anything. Thanks!
3
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3answers
100 views

why do some cells in the body prefer necrosis to apoptosis as a means of cell death?

There are many programmed cell death pathways, but some cells show a greater preference for some over the other. I'm wondering as to why if necrosis is an inflammatory response that causes damage to ...
3
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0answers
31 views

What has to duplicate before cell enters M phase? [closed]

What has to duplicate before cell enters M phase? DNA histones centrosome mitochondria (any other organelles?) condensins (not sure?) have I forgotten anything? Thank you in advance!
3
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3answers
270 views

How do we look inside the cell?

My sister is in 9th grade biology and her teacher avoided answering the question of how we actually study the inside of a cell. I haven't taken biology in a while but I'd like to give her an answer. ...
3
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0answers
84 views

How to prevent e coli from clumping (for FACS)?

I'm performing FACS on e coli, but the cells are clumping together so each event is multiple cells. I ran a control where I had one flask of e coli expressing GFP, and one flask expressing RFP. Run ...
3
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0answers
46 views

What were the first neural systems like?

I'm curious about the origin of the neural network. I'm thinking perhaps once life evolved beyond the single cell organism, it needed a simple neural network to coordinate those cells, and cell ...
3
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0answers
42 views

Why is ATP the main nucleoside triphosphate used to exchange energy? [duplicate]

Out of all of the nucleoside triphosphates what makes ATP the most used? Is it its structure? The amount of energy it contains? Why is GTP not used as much? What is the deal with the other nucleoside ...
5
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0answers
66 views

What is the mechanism by which lamins regulate gene expression?

The heterochromatin is generally localized at the nuclear periphery (also near nuclear lamina), whereas active genes are preferentially found in the nuclear interior. Children with ...
2
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1answer
36 views

How semi-synthetic cell with artificial DNA works

I know that by now this is old new but I heard that a cell that used a synthetic pair of nucleotides, called X and Y, have been made. My question was, how did the cell understand the X and Y ...
2
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1answer
52 views

Energy metabolism in Cancer cells

The TCA cycle intermediate Isocitrate dehydrogenase commonly undergoes point mutations in cancers. This allows IDH to reduce a-Ketogluterate to 2Hydoxygluterate, causing a reduction in pVHLs ability ...
4
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1answer
76 views

What effects does being cryogenically frozen have on a person's body? [closed]

I'm wondering what effects are known to happen to a person's cells when a person is cryogenically frozen, especially those that need to be overcome in order to "bring them back to life." From a ...
9
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3answers
2k views

Does a man contain all the genes needed to make a woman?

This question is brought on by a Sci Fi novel I am thinking about writing. The plot device involves a colonist in charge of building a population on a new planet who loses his supply of embryos and so ...
0
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1answer
59 views

Why do some cells like myofibrils have multiple nuclei?

I see that myofibrils (muscle cells) contain not one, but multiple nuclei. Why is this so? Do all the nuclei participate in cell division?
7
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1answer
478 views

Are pulp cells (in oranges) normal plant cells?

Does a pulp cell contain all the elements that a 'normal' plant cell contains? I've searched for an hour to find more information about this but couldn't find anything useful. Is the pulp cell the ...
0
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1answer
78 views

What is the second phase of photosynthesis?

I really want to know what the second phase of photosynthesis (in the dark) is. I have a fair understanding of the first cycle where molecular oxygen is generated under the influence of light, but I ...
0
votes
1answer
41 views

When do the spindle fibers attach to the chromosome

At what phase does this occur in mitosis (or even meiosis); some text books say prophase while others say metaphase.
0
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2answers
116 views

What triggers programmed cell death in humans (from outside the cell)?

What triggers programmed cell death in humans? Is it decided by the brain (for the entire body)? Or is it a local decision of a cell by its environment? Something else? I realize that there might be ...
5
votes
1answer
86 views

Are There Exceptions to Animal Cells not Having Cell Walls?

In the January Issue of SciAm (discussing Haemophilia): When damage occurs to blood vessels, exposure of the blood to collagen in the cell walls and material released by the cells triggers the ...
4
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1answer
82 views

What is an operon?

What is an operon in a eukaryotic cell, and how does it regulate the expression of genes? I've already read Wikipedia, but it is not enough clear to me. Unfortunately my knowledge in genetics are very ...
2
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0answers
37 views

How organized is the inside of a cell? [closed]

I know cells have many ways of organizing and controlling what goes on inside their membranes. But just how ordered or chaotic is it inside a cell? Here's a few thoughts I had. Consider the ...
2
votes
2answers
51 views

Are we more/less resistant to infectious diseases during an allergic reaction?

To my understanding, an allergic response is a non-adaptive response of the immune system to some molecule. The molecule in question is therefore "thought by the immune system" to be infectious ...
2
votes
1answer
44 views

How are lesions in the RNA corrected?

I quite understand why thymine is present in DNA. So we can mark it out where cytosine undergoes a reaction and is converted to uracil. Then we can repair the DNA. But how can we make that out in RNA ...
8
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1answer
220 views

Single long axon vs serial neurons

Based on the comments in this post and also this chat. For discussions and speculations please comment in the chat. The basic question is what is the advantage of having a single long axon such as ...
2
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0answers
29 views

How do I get recombinant proteins into the nucleus of mammal cells?

I know that there are Nuclear Localisation Sequencenes (NLS). They can be taken from endogenous or viral proteins and fused to the N or C terminus of my recombinant protein. Which is the best one? ...
27
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2answers
2k views

Can brain cells move?

I was discussing this with my brother. I'm pretty sure I read somewhere that they can move. Thanks EDIT: By movement I mean long distance migration (preferably within the brain only).
3
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1answer
38 views

Estimating RPM to RCF in Methods from Older Papers

I'm attempting to replicate a cell biology method from a 1958 Laboratory Investigation paper. The protocol is for the isolation of an extracellular matrix protein, and a key step is a centrifugation ...
5
votes
3answers
132 views

Studying effects of alcohol on cells

I am wondering about the logistics of a simple experiment with say 3 types of alcohols, and various concentrations of each, with a control(s) I would like to research the effects of alcohol on ...
0
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0answers
11 views

Differences in Karr cell model and E-Cell

Recently Karr et al. published in Cell their model of Mycoplasma genitalium and published the complete code. Also, the E-Cell project allows to simulate a complete cell. Can anyone comment on ...
3
votes
1answer
43 views

Prevent biofilm formation on moist surfaces

I have an indoor fountain with lots of water. What are the most common microorganisms in this kind of moist environment, and what are the standard way to prevent biofilm formation by them? I thought ...
-1
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1answer
54 views

How does a multicellular, eukaryotic body treat heat-resistant pathogenic bacteria?

How does the said body treat heat-resistant pathogenic bacteria? If fever is the body's response to foreign microbial invasion, then what happens if the bacteria is heat-resistant but the body's own ...
6
votes
1answer
105 views

Why do some internal organs regenerate?

I have been reading about the human liver and zebra fish heart muscle having the ability to regenerate. It seems to me that these organs have very little chance to become damaged or worn out. At the ...
2
votes
1answer
178 views

How are lysosomes formed?

Lysosomes are irregularly shaped membrane bound organelles containing 50 different types of enzymes. But how are they formed? How are they produced??