The study of cells: their physiological properties, structure, environmental interaction, division, life cycle, and death, as well as the organelles they contain. Also known as cytology.

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TAA- Tumor associated antigen

An approach to find Tumor associated antigens is based on transfection of expression library made from cDNA into cells expressing desired MHC haplotypes. Can someone please explain what this line ...
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20 views

Microarray probe and target

In a microarray, which one is called a target and which one is the probe? the one that is added later , is that the probe or the one present in the slots of the microarray, that is the probe? (I have ...
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41 views

How does a cell compute/perceive gradients? (And which papers/books have written about this?)

I have heard that a biological cell can perceive the change/gradient of a chemical by integrating/differentiating in some way, i.e. that the cell can do math in some way. I really don't know much ...
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29 views

What roles do cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase, and epoxygenase have in signal transduction?

Besides oxidizing fatty acids to form prostglandins, leukotrienes, and epoxides, what other roles do cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase, and epoxygenase have in signal transduction?
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How is it that ionic diffusion is independent of other ions?

This question arises from the explanation of what the resting potential of a cell membrane is. In the Goldman formula, there is no interaction between different ion types. If diffusion is caused by ...
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39 views

How to measure the total number of cells in an average human body?

I have got one assignment to calculate the approximate sum total of all cells in the human body. How to tackle this problem? I know that the current statistics is $10^{13}$ cells. I wanted some hints. ...
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64 views

How to estimate the DNA density in human sperm head? [closed]

I have got an estimate of sperm head volume from internet.Like consider it as a disk of order 4-5µm. Now I wanted to find the DNA density in the sperm head. How to find that?
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35 views

What does the term 'epitope mapping' mean? [closed]

Epitope mapping means identifying the binding site of antibodies on the target antigen. This means that the site to be identified is part of the antigen and not antibody, am I right?
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64 views

What is the functional significance of the difference in cardiolipin/cholesterol ratio in different membranes?

I have read somewhere that the plasma membrane has little cardiolipin but excess cholesterol whereas the inner mitochondrial membrane is rich in cardiolipin and has little cholesterol.I just wanted to ...
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69 views

positive and negative feedback

I want to know more about positive feedback in gene regulation and what the different between positive and negative feedback is and the similarity.
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29 views

Is there a classification of species based on number of different cell types?

The human body has around 200 different types of cells, according to my brief internet research. How does that compare to other species? Is there a classification of species based on that, i.e. number ...
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103 views

Mitochondria - are they really separate organisms that once merged into eukaryotic cells?

Theoretically, mitochondria are said to be a separate organism that is concerned with its own life and its own processes. In fact, it even duplicates individually. I know a similar question is here ...
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215 views

Can a bacteriophage be used to treat bacterial diseases?

Some bacteriophages reproduce using the lytic cycle which ends with the destruction of the host bacterial cell. I was wondering if theoretically this could be used theraputically to treat bacterial ...
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32 views

Concentration dependent cellular processes

Are there any famous biological processes that depend strongly on a chemical concentration reaching a particular value, like some sort of switch? E.g. if concentration of chemical x reaches ...
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697 views

DNA is charged negative. Where is all the positive charge in my body?

DNA is charged negative because of its phosphate backbone. Since charges need to be balanced (so that there are no charges building up somewhere), what is the positive charge which neutralizes this ...
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4answers
74 views

Why is too much glucose harmful?

I learned the citric acid cycle in biotechnology school and how cells work; about ADP and ATP and how the Cellular respiration (C6H12O6 + 6O2 -> 6CO2+6H2O) works. I am interested in understanding why ...
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131 views

Breakdown of energy expenditure at the level of a single cell

The metabolic rate measures how much energy an organism expends over a unit of time. Its breakdown for the human body in terms of its functions is well documented : so much for the heart, for the ...
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43 views

On the mechanisms of cellular growth [closed]

Is there such a thing or process of 'forced cellular' growth that is initiated within a biological system 'W' where it could cause cellular growth and/or repair where it is not 'normally' required ...
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60 views

Has anyone used Crispr/Cas to induce a knock-in in MEF cells?

Does anyone have experience with the crispr/cas9 platform performed on MEF? Or does anyone recall any relevent articles? Thanks
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148 views

RNeasy Mini Kit low 260/230 ratio — can I purify this RNA for further use?

I used Qiagen's RNeasy Mini Kit to isolate RNA from 5*10^5 C28/I2 (immortalized human chondrocytes). However, my yield is low (~25 ng/ul), but my 260/280 ratio is great (~2.3), and my 260/230 ratio is ...
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60 views

Inductance in cell

In an animal cell, especially neuron and in particular its axon, while there is electrical resistance and capacitance mechanism in the cell, which play essential roles in the cable theory model of ...
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43 views

What is the role of lamellar bodies in lung cells?

Lamellar bodies have been found to be secreted in lung cells many of their associated proteins have been identified. What is the current consensus or research on the function that these lamellar ...
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93 views

How can you explain the origin of life out of nonliving matter (abiogenesis)? [closed]

According to biochemist Robert Shapiro, the "primordial soup" theory is as follows: Early Earth had a chemically reducing atmosphere. This atmosphere, exposed to energy in various forms, produced ...
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39 views

Regarding signalling pathways

Do all signalling pathways have something that can inhibit them? If the signal pathway is benefitial and it is inhibited would the inhibitor be caused by a biological problem? Are all inhibitors ...
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66 views

Database of Multicellular and Unicellular organisms?

I'm trying to annotate a list of organisms taken from NCBI for cellularity (unicellular or multicellular). Does any of you ever found a database with association between an organisms' name or taxa and ...
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66 views

Can (any) human cells learn?

I'm not talking about single celled organisms, but actual cells in your body. Is there any evidence that they can learn to, say, navigate an environment or avoid an aversive stimulus like an animal ...
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What models are used for the different pathways of apoptosis?

We are trying to find references for experimental models of different pathways of apoptosis (caspase-dependent and -independent intrinsic apoptosis, death receptor type-1 and -2 mediated apoptosis, ...
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Cell volumes of the MDCK, COS1 and ECV standard cell lines?

Where can I find information regarding their volumes? In general where can I find information regarding common cell types?
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1answer
135 views

How do some plants grow in salt water, while others die?

My question is basically out of curiosity and comes from observing how certain plants (such as mangroves or salt cedar) can grow in seawater. If this gives the plant an advantage, why haven't all ...
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59 views

Has an artificial symbiotic relationship ever been created?

Have 2 organisms ever been introduced to create a symbiotic relationship that doesn't occur in their natural environment?
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133 views

Can botulinum toxin be grown or kept from denaturing in an UNWRAPPED 50 pound hay bale?

Botulinum toxin is the neurotoxin protein created when botulism spores grow. The requirements for growth and/or for keeping the toxin from denaturing would seem to be very difficult to create in bale ...
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60 views

How do penicillin resistant bacteria grow slower in the presence of penicillin?

We put 2 flasks inoculated with Bacillus cereus in 37⁰C: one with 100μg/ml penicillin + 50μg/ml chloramphenicol and the other without penicillin. We found that the OD is higher in the one without the ...
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101 views

A photosynthesizing mouse?

N. Shubin's Your Inner Fish makes the point several times that there is a lot of functional similarity between some seemingly remote gene cousins. If that needed reinforcing we have the spider-goat, ...
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2answers
63 views

Cancer growth and cell division [closed]

I am confused about the prerequisites for cell division and cancer. Which of the following is necessary for the cell cycle to progress? Hormones Growth factor Cyclins Cyclin dependent kinases ...
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1answer
35 views

Trimming of tRNA precursors

From Molecular Biology of the Cell (4th edition) by Bruce Alberts et al. (Chp 6, Pg 338) : Both bacterial and eucaryotic tRNAs are typically synthesized as larger precursor tRNAs, and these are ...
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61 views

What cells don't have a primary cilium?

It is often stated that most cells in the human body have a primary cilium. Which ones don't? For which cells is it unknown?
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How does a Na+/H+ antiporter drive osmosis in this “osmotic motor”?

This recent paper in Cell describes a cancer cell using osmotic pressure to move in confined spaces. The cell preferentially inserts Na+/H+ antiporters in the leading membrane. I want someone to ...
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Exocytosis of mast cell secretory granules

I've been doing a bit of reading about mast cell degranulation and have become thoroughly lost while trying to understand how the secretory granules are actually secreted. I understand that there are ...
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1answer
72 views

Why are some scorpion species fluorescent under UV light?

It's known for some scorpion species such as Pandinus imperator, Heterometrus Petersii etc. to be shining under UV light. That makes them easier to capture and collect by humans. Is there any ...
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1answer
122 views

Why are red blood cells considered to be cells?

Wikipedia states that a cell is the basic structural, functional and biological unit of all known living organisms. Cells are the smallest unit of life that can replicate independently. It then ...
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MAPK signalling pathway initial conditions

I would like to know the initial conditions and locations of the chemical reagents in the MAPK cascasde. I'm going to plug this information into a reaction diffusion simulation. From reading ...
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31 views

How is the growth of benign tumors suppressed?

A benign tumor has an outer layer of cancerous cells beyond which are regular cells (I Think). The Tumor must have some kind of boundary layer like a wall where somehow the cancerous cells can't ...
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Why are embryonic germ cells considered stem cells?

In a class that I'm taking we were presented 3 types of stem cells. Adult stem cells which come from bone marrow Embryonic stem cells which come from embryos Embryonic germ cells which come from ...
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59 views

How to study the effect on tau protein isoforms on microtubule based transport?

From what I read, A-beta plaques inhibit microtubule based transport of mitochondria when tau protein is present in the cell. How would I be able to do a test to see if one isoform of tau is more ...
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1answer
23 views

Polarized epithelium and localization of ion channels

I'm trying to learn more about polarized epithelial cells of the gut. I am familiar with classic brush border transporters localized to the apical memebrane to facilitate nutrient absorption. I am ...
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1answer
62 views

Amino acid profile of GPCRs

You are studying cellular signalling through a newly identified GPCR. Specifically you’re working on a pair of newly identified GPCRs, GPCR-A and GPCR-B. Each binds the same small ligand, but ...
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3answers
82 views

Why doesn't the cytosol dissolve the polar structures?

we know that cytoplasm of cells are filled with water molecules and other hydrophilic molecules so my question is why the water of cytosol doesn't dissolve the ionic part of the lipid bilayer or why ...
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54 views

Advantage of cup-like shape of blood cells, spores?

Mold spores sometimes have the same shape as platelets in blood. If I were designing a spore it would probably be spherical. Is there any advantage to this cup-like shape? Maybe there is some ...
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1answer
41 views

How much of the jejunum is bypassed during gastric bypass?

There is both long and short limb bypass surgeries. I want to know how much of the jejunum is bypassed with each procedure.
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143 views

How would the human body adjust to sleep times if we were to live in a place with different day lengths?

You sleep at night and are active during the day that's how things work for humans, but theoretically if a human whose parents lived on earth were to be born in another planet resembling earth but the ...