The study of cells: their physiological properties, structure, environmental interaction, division, life cycle, and death, as well as the organelles they contain. Also known as cytology.

learn more… | top users | synonyms (2)

0
votes
1answer
63 views

Why do some cells like myofibrils have multiple nuclei?

I see that myofibrils (muscle cells) contain not one, but multiple nuclei. Why is this so? Do all the nuclei participate in cell division?
3
votes
1answer
38 views

Estimating RPM to RCF in Methods from Older Papers

I'm attempting to replicate a cell biology method from a 1958 Laboratory Investigation paper. The protocol is for the isolation of an extracellular matrix protein, and a key step is a centrifugation ...
8
votes
1answer
220 views

Single long axon vs serial neurons

Based on the comments in this post and also this chat. For discussions and speculations please comment in the chat. The basic question is what is the advantage of having a single long axon such as ...
4
votes
1answer
109 views

When should endocytosis inhibitors be used in cell binding assays?

I'm beginning to do some cell-binding assays and I would like for my proteins to not be endocytosed by my mammalian cells. Typical suggestions are for the cells to be kept on ice and that the binding ...
3
votes
1answer
43 views

Prevent biofilm formation on moist surfaces

I have an indoor fountain with lots of water. What are the most common microorganisms in this kind of moist environment, and what are the standard way to prevent biofilm formation by them? I thought ...
2
votes
2answers
69 views

Does the cellular response to every receptor work the same way?

I heard somewhere that activating any receptor results in the same intracellular response (signaling) which involves NF-κB. If that is true, I hardly understand how the cells distinguish between ...
7
votes
1answer
479 views

Are pulp cells (in oranges) normal plant cells?

Does a pulp cell contain all the elements that a 'normal' plant cell contains? I've searched for an hour to find more information about this but couldn't find anything useful. Is the pulp cell the ...
0
votes
1answer
78 views

What is the second phase of photosynthesis?

I really want to know what the second phase of photosynthesis (in the dark) is. I have a fair understanding of the first cycle where molecular oxygen is generated under the influence of light, but I ...
4
votes
2answers
117 views

Can I force evolution in a group of cells by removing all the smaller cells?

I actually have algae growing in water in a container. I was thinking if it was possible to filter the water so that all the small cells will be filtered out and only the bigger ones will remain to ...
0
votes
1answer
41 views

When do the spindle fibers attach to the chromosome

At what phase does this occur in mitosis (or even meiosis); some text books say prophase while others say metaphase.
3
votes
1answer
60 views

How is the growth of benign tumors suppressed?

A benign tumor has an outer layer of cancerous cells beyond which are regular cells (I Think). The Tumor must have some kind of boundary layer like a wall where somehow the cancerous cells can't ...
5
votes
1answer
86 views

Are There Exceptions to Animal Cells not Having Cell Walls?

In the January Issue of SciAm (discussing Haemophilia): When damage occurs to blood vessels, exposure of the blood to collagen in the cell walls and material released by the cells triggers the ...
14
votes
4answers
1k views

Why would a single celled organism evolve to be multi-celled?

I read a story this week on Richard Lenski who has been 'evolving' E. coli for more than 50,000 generations now. One comment I read was from someone who doesn't accept Evolution who pointed out that ...
4
votes
1answer
83 views

What is an operon?

What is an operon in a eukaryotic cell, and how does it regulate the expression of genes? I've already read Wikipedia, but it is not enough clear to me. Unfortunately my knowledge in genetics are very ...
2
votes
0answers
37 views

How organized is the inside of a cell? [closed]

I know cells have many ways of organizing and controlling what goes on inside their membranes. But just how ordered or chaotic is it inside a cell? Here's a few thoughts I had. Consider the ...
2
votes
2answers
51 views

Are we more/less resistant to infectious diseases during an allergic reaction?

To my understanding, an allergic response is a non-adaptive response of the immune system to some molecule. The molecule in question is therefore "thought by the immune system" to be infectious ...
13
votes
1answer
489 views

The Origin of Mitochondria

For a long time I've just accepted, because it is just what everyone told me, that mitochondria became organelles in the cell when they were "engulfed" by another cell which acted like it's host. This ...
1
vote
3answers
42 views

What are some places where biofilms could develop? [closed]

I'm trying to think of places where a biofilm could develop other than on medical equipment or food processing equipment such as stainless steel mechanized blades or knives. I'm thinking more along ...
27
votes
2answers
1k views

Can brain cells move?

I was discussing this with my brother. I'm pretty sure I read somewhere that they can move. Thanks EDIT: By movement I mean long distance migration (preferably within the brain only).
2
votes
1answer
44 views

How are lesions in the RNA corrected?

I quite understand why thymine is present in DNA. So we can mark it out where cytosine undergoes a reaction and is converted to uracil. Then we can repair the DNA. But how can we make that out in RNA ...
6
votes
1answer
108 views

Why do some internal organs regenerate?

I have been reading about the human liver and zebra fish heart muscle having the ability to regenerate. It seems to me that these organs have very little chance to become damaged or worn out. At the ...
6
votes
1answer
493 views

How to Design an siRNA Experiment?

I'm going to undertake an siRNA experiment soon, but I have only read about them. I want to address the role an enzyme plays in processing a protein. From what I understand, I will need to pick two ...
4
votes
2answers
137 views

positive and negative feedback

I want to know more about positive feedback in gene regulation and to know the similarity and differences between positive and negative feedbacks.
5
votes
2answers
37 views

Regarding cellular self-destruction

I heard and read telomere 'health' or 'length' ( if that's right ) has alot to do with cell 'health'. If telomere 'abilities' are 'restored' to a 'healthier' status then the cell it is in functions as ...
2
votes
0answers
29 views

How do I get recombinant proteins into the nucleus of mammal cells?

I know that there are Nuclear Localisation Sequencenes (NLS). They can be taken from endogenous or viral proteins and fused to the N or C terminus of my recombinant protein. Which is the best one? ...
7
votes
1answer
600 views

X chromosome “weight”?

According to Wikipedia, the X chromosome has approximately 153 million base pairs, while the Y chromosome has only 60 million base pairs. Thus, the difference is roughly 93 million base pairs. My ...
5
votes
3answers
134 views

Studying effects of alcohol on cells

I am wondering about the logistics of a simple experiment with say 3 types of alcohols, and various concentrations of each, with a control(s) I would like to research the effects of alcohol on ...
0
votes
1answer
1k views

What is the appropriate blender speed to maximize nutrition and digestion of fruits and vegetables?

Blender companies state that a blender for smoothies should have speeds of at least 30000 rpm. They argue that only at 30000 rpm are cells of fruits and vegetables sheared enough to maximize nutrition ...
0
votes
0answers
11 views

Differences in Karr cell model and E-Cell

Recently Karr et al. published in Cell their model of Mycoplasma genitalium and published the complete code. Also, the E-Cell project allows to simulate a complete cell. Can anyone comment on ...
2
votes
1answer
71 views

Domains in cell membrane

How is movement of proteins and lipids between different domains of cell membrane prevented? Why is the noncytosolic layer not able to do lateral movements between domains but cytosolic layer is able ...
-1
votes
1answer
54 views

How does a multicellular, eukaryotic body treat heat-resistant pathogenic bacteria?

How does the said body treat heat-resistant pathogenic bacteria? If fever is the body's response to foreign microbial invasion, then what happens if the bacteria is heat-resistant but the body's own ...
2
votes
1answer
54 views

Fusion of neuron with a S phase cell

There was some experiment in which a S phase cell was fused with other cell and the other cell also began to replicate DNA. Would the same happen if fused with nerve cell ? Why or why not?
2
votes
1answer
41 views

What roles do cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase, and epoxygenase have in signal transduction? [closed]

Besides oxidizing fatty acids to form prostglandins, leukotrienes, and epoxides, what other roles do cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase, and epoxygenase have in signal transduction?
3
votes
1answer
73 views

PSI-BLAST website algorithm parameters

http://blast.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Blast.cgi In this website, when I want to apply the psi-blast algorithm on a sequence, under the section of algorithm parameters , what does PSI-BLAST threshold mean? ...
3
votes
2answers
141 views

How many centrioles/basal bodies are there in multi-ciliated cells throughout the cell cycle?

I thought there were only two centrioles per cell, that convert to the basal body at some point during the cell cycle. I also thought there's one basal body per cilium, so I'm not clear on where the ...
4
votes
2answers
72 views

How to visualize the ECM?

Specifically, I'd like to look at changes in HA (hyaluronic acid) production. Most often you only see people staining the cell surface or removing cells from culture for fixation and then imaging. ...
1
vote
1answer
218 views

Has anyone used Crispr/Cas to induce a knock-in in MEF cells?

Does anyone have experience with the crispr/cas9 platform performed on MEF? Or does anyone recall any relevent articles? Thanks
2
votes
1answer
185 views

How are lysosomes formed?

Lysosomes are irregularly shaped membrane bound organelles containing 50 different types of enzymes. But how are they formed? How are they produced??
5
votes
1answer
119 views

Mechanism of Muscle Growth

According to this video (sorry for the poor reference but it represents my level of understanding in physiology), muscle grow as a consequence of repairing micro-lesions. How are these micro-lesions ...
2
votes
0answers
62 views

What proportion of salt in water would make it not dehydrate nor hydrate someone?

Drinking sea water can be deadly as it contains too much salt, basically de-hydrating the body. Normal tap water contains little salt and is good for re-hydration. My question: How much salt needs to ...
3
votes
2answers
398 views

which exact mechanism triggers the first cell differentiation after n divisions?

I would like to understand which mechanism triggers the first cell differentiation after n divisions. I read previous articles on SE and Wikipedia articles on cellular differentiation and ...
4
votes
2answers
3k views

Why was the Davson-Danielli model rejected?

According to my textbook, Davson-Danielli's model of a phospholipid bilayer sandwiched between two layers of globular protein was incorrect. The nonpolar protein portions would separate the polar ...
0
votes
1answer
129 views

Apoptosis vs necroptosis

I understand that apoptosis and necroptosis share the same upper part of the pathway, but I cannot seem to distinguish when is each one activated? From my readings, it seems that when procaspases 8 or ...
1
vote
2answers
784 views

Book Recommendations: GRE Subject Test In Biochemistry, Cell And Molecular Biology

There are probably a lot of really good answers that may vary significantly in terms of content. I'm looking for a set of books that I can read in preparation for the GRE Subject Test In ...
2
votes
1answer
41 views

What are the features on a microscope one needs in order to do lab work?

By lab work I mean urinalysis, blood work(live as well), fecals, cytologies, histologies and all other. I have read(partly) a book(from 2002) on lab diagnostics and the author did not mention ...
1
vote
0answers
16 views

Slicing cell cultures frozen in vitrified ice with a laser for CryoEM

Could a cell culture frozen in vitrified ice for CryoEM be effectively sliced into thin planes and resolved images produced? I was thinking if this could be done to get images from inside a cell.
1
vote
1answer
22 views

Centriole genes Knock-out Experiment in Common experimental animals?

Anyone know of any experiments that have knocked out the genes for producing centrioles in a worm, mouse, fish, fly or whatever animal? Are the genes for centrioles even identified? It has been shown ...
8
votes
1answer
108 views

Pancretic Acinar Cell - ATP, calcium concentration data

I need to find a decent source of data for concentration of ATP and calcium in the pancreatic acinar cell. So far all I can find is ATP or calcium 'levels' based on fluorescence , which are not ...
2
votes
2answers
73 views

How does the cell regulate different metabolic pathways?

I heard somewhere that cells use different nucleosides bound to triphosphates e.g. ATP, GTP, CTP and other modified compounds: NADH, NADPH to distinguish between different metabolic pathways and so ...
10
votes
3answers
3k views

Was the mitochondrion or chloroplast first?

I still don't know if the mitochondrion or chloroplast was first? I've looked for it on the internet and in various books but haven't found anything. Does anyone have the answer and a theory which ...