The study of cells: their physiological properties, structure, environmental interaction, division, life cycle, and death, as well as the organelles they contain. Also known as cytology.

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101 views

Benefits of CLARITY?

What are the benefits of CLARITY over this technique that was published more than a year earlier? Of course the second technique needs a fancier microscope that is likely more expensive and requires ...
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1answer
58 views

Diffusion of FAD+

Why is NAD+ free to diffuse within the mitochondrion whereas FAD+ is not ? What biochemical properties cause this difference ?
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43 views

Why is succinate dehydrogenase attached to the inner mitochondrial membrane?

Succinate dehydrogenase is attached to the inner mitochondrial membrane.All the other enzymes of the Krebs cycle are located in the matrix of mitochondria. What is the biochemical reason behind ...
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153 views

Microtiter Dish Biofilm Formation Assay- Pseudomonas and Crystal Violet

If Pseudomonas is a gram negative bacteria, it does not retain crystal violet but why is it that so many people are using crystal violet staining in theri Microtiter Dish Biofilm Formation Assay?
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25 views

Macrophage death by toxin. Little balls inside cell? What type of death?

After I treated J774 cells ( a mouse monocyte/macrophage cell line ) with Clostridium difficile Toxin B (1 ng/ml for 44 hours), I noticed several small circles inside of a seemingly dead cell. I'm ...
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1answer
68 views

Solubility of Forskolin in ethanol

I am interested in using forskolin in cell culture medium. Does anyone know how to make solution of 10 microM forskolin in 5% ethanol or less. I would like to avoid using DMSO as a solvent. Thank you. ...
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57 views

Smoking, cancer, correlation between quitting smoking and increased immediate risk

There is "proof" out there today that suggests smoking is directly linked to cancer. I cannot argue against that, for the evidence in favor appears strong, and the evidence against is lacking. I'll ...
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1answer
417 views

Natural examples of XOR functions at the cellular level

We can often think of cells as a sort of circuit on macromolecules, and can show that they can accurately and robustly implement functions like $\text{MAJ}(x_1,...,x_n)$ (return $1$ if more than half ...
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1answer
30 views

Dinuclei cellular mechanism

I am no biologist, but I have this question buzzing in my mind. It's a matter of curiosity What happens when two nuclei occupy the same cell? Would we expect the embryo (if it lives) to have complex ...
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1answer
28 views

What is splice junction pairs?

Splicing is a modification of pre mRNA when all introns are removed and exons are joined. What is a splice junction pair? It is two exons which connected together?
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1answer
39 views

How many chemical species are on average in a typical plant and animal cell?

I want to know what sort of range there is on the number of different chemical species in a typical plant and animal cell. Failing that, some specific examples (with sources please). Thanks
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0answers
81 views

Which of the cell types commonly found in mammals has the greatest number of mitochondria?

This is basically a fun question, inspired by this answer on scifi.se. So, which cell type will have the greatest number of mitochondria? Obviously, I am talking about wild type, healthy individuals ...
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2answers
53 views

Connection between genes and pathways

I am reading about a paper about inferencing pathway information in cancer cells. Authors refer to ERBB2 as a gene and a pathway. I don't have solid biology background. What exactly means when we ...
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1answer
91 views

How does human body deal with inert solid material in the bloodstream?

How does human body deal with inert solid material in the bloodstream? For example, if there is a powder of glass injected into our bloodstream, will the white blood cells do anything or will kidney ...
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0answers
29 views

specific membrane conductivity of HEK293 [closed]

does anybody know the specific membrane conductivity of HEK293 cells? Does anybody know a valid source?
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1answer
87 views

What are the lifetimes of cellular components on organelle or molecular level?

I was thinking that even though I know how generally the cell works, I don't really have a feeling of how volatile it is. I want to know what is the lifetime/turnover rate of different constituents of ...
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3answers
212 views

Aerobic vs anaerobic respiration comparison

The following graphs compare glucose decomposition in yeasts (in anaerobic vs aerobic conditions respectively) My question is, why doesn't the first one look like a straight line as the second one ...
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2answers
109 views

What is the smallest oligocelluar organism?

What is the smallest oligocelluar organism? How many cells does it have? EDIT The question is motivated by this comment@Philosophy.SE EDIT as recommended in comments I'm looking for an example of ...
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2answers
104 views

How do detergents get in hydrophobic membrane interior?

According to Molecular And Cellular Biology (Stephen L. Wolfe), Membranes disperse almost instantaneously if exposed to a nonpolar environment or to detergents, which are amphipathic molecules ...
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1answer
63 views

What is a phospho-protein binding domain?

Is this just a domain that binds proteins that have been phosphorylated? And it mediates signalling between an activated/phosphorylated protein? How is this significant with BRCA1?
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1answer
56 views

Photosynthesis: Splitting Water

The splitting of water is an endergonic (non-spontaneous) reaction, and thus would require energy (chemical work to be done) in order to happen. In Photosystem II, an enzyme catalyzes this splitting, ...
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1answer
38 views

Looking for raw cell videos from a light microscope

First off, I'm not looking for online lectures. I am trying to find creative commons licensed videos of live cells moving around without annotation or anything extra. I would prefer a few minutes of ...
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2answers
604 views

Cell life: division for immortality or reproduction with aging

Are the two cells that are derived from one cell, ‘twin sisters’ or a ‘mother and a daughter’? In other words, can a cell really be divided to live an "immortal" life or is cell reproduction the ...
4
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1answer
119 views

Time spent in phases of cell cycle

I am looking for references to papers containing the time intervals spent in different phases of the cell cycle (ej., G0, G1, S, G2, M for eukaryotes) for different cells. In particular, I am ...
3
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1answer
57 views

What's a replicate line?

The methods section inside a paper I'm reading make mention of replicate lines. Example: "We founded 10 replicate lines from a single clone". This is in the context of experimental evolution and ...
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1answer
890 views

Why would a single celled organism evolve to be multi-celled?

I read a story this week on Richard Lenski who has been 'evolving' E. coli for more than 50,000 generations now. One comment I read was from someone who doesn't accept Evolution who pointed out that ...
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1answer
193 views

How much does the Hayflick limit/telomere length vary across taxa and within humans?

Since they seem to be quite connected, I'm curious if anyone knows of research comparing the Hayflick limit (and presumably by extension telomere length) between different taxa. I've heard the ...
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1answer
96 views

Why are transmembrane proteins difficult to crystallise?

I know that in vivo there are a lot fewer transmembranous proteins in general, and that they are produced at a lower rate than their free counterparts. This is mainly because transmembrane proteins ...
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1answer
66 views

What will happen if we expose the brain to an intermittent light?

If a brain is exposed to an intermittent light are specific areas going to fire? If yes, which of them? Is there any experiment about this?
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2answers
208 views

Homework : Sodium Potassium pump

Why does sodium-potassium pump consume about 2/3 energy of a cell ? A.maintains appropriate membrane potential B.helps in co-transport I think it should be A.
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1answer
70 views

Body's decomposition

Does a human body decompose in a completely sterile environment ? If yes, what decomposes it ? And how fast ? What happens in vacuum ? Can it remain exactly the same ? Thanks
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0answers
171 views

Image Processing Suite for bacterial microscopy: Schnitzcells or MicrobeTracker?

I am looking to start doing some work tracking the size and growth of individual bacterial cells in the microscope. In order to analyze the images I need software that can segment the cells, ...
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1answer
55 views

Are there any enzymes in cytoplasm to help the newly-synthesized polypeptide to form tertiary structure?

Polypeptides made by ribosomes which attach to rER will go into the rER to form the tertiary structure. Those polypeptides made by free ribosomes usually stay in cytoplasm. So are there any enzymes in ...
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1answer
68 views

Attaching suspension cells to coverslip duing mycoplasma contamination detection

I am planing to screen my cell cultures for mycoplasma contamination using the Hoechst 33258 DNA staining method. This method is suitable for adherent cultures. Is this method suitable for ...
3
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1answer
42 views

Where can I find a full genealogy of human cell types?

It is said on Wikipedia, that the precursor of blastocyst is a morula, and that the precursor of morula is a zygote. This gives us the part of genealogy tree of cell types. Unfortunately, no full ...
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392 views

Is cell membrane living

We say cell wall is dead but nobody says cell membrane is dead. Is cell membrane living or dead ? If it is not dead then why is it not included in protoplasm : Protoplasm is the living contents ...
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86 views

Learning first-year biology + anatomy via documentary? [closed]

Probably going to take first-year biology in ~4 months; so was thinking to go through MIT's 7.00x on EdX… However seeing at how popular this topic is, I was thinking there might be a fun documentary ...
2
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1answer
47 views

Exotic Cell Shapes

As far as I know, plant cell shapes are a difficult thing to pin down. However plant cells have cell walls and so can be very rigid. However the only plant cells I've seen have been either block ...
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45 views

Ideal blood cell

I had been given an assignment to draw an ideal blood cell, a cell which can perform the functions of almost all the blood cells (like red blood cells, neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils and ...
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0answers
22 views

How is saltatory conduction faster than conduction of unmyelinated fibers? [duplicate]

It's always the same explanation that currents are able to "hop" along Ranvier nodes instead of passing continuously along the axon making saltatory conduction more efficient than continuous ...
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2answers
64 views

Termination of translation

What dissociates first - the last tRNA, mRNA and release factors or the subunits of ribosomes? I tried searching this from Lehninger but couldn't get a clean answer.
3
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1answer
139 views

Number of genes required to sustain life

Are there estimates of the minimum number of genes required to sustain life? In what I mean by life here, I don't include viruses.
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36 views

Fusion of neuron with a S phase cell

There was some experiment in which a S phase cell was fused with other cell and the other cell also began to replicate DNA. Would the same happen if fused with nerve cell ? Why or why not?
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0answers
54 views

Critical pO2 threshold for cell division?

I'm a physicist asking questions on an aspect of cellular metabolism, so excuse my biological ignorance! Hypoxia is a frequent complication of certain tumour types, and has quite an implication for ...
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37 views

Why must abortive transcription repeat itself a number of times?

Why must abortive transcription repeat itself a number of times before a stable DNA:RNA hybrid containing a transcript of 11 ribonucleotides is formed?
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2answers
113 views

How is it that the WI-38 cell line isolated by Hayflick in 1962 is still very much around and not affected by the 'Hayflick Limit'?

I have searched the net and I have not been able to come up with an clear answer. Edit: Here is the para quoted from Nature http://www.nature.com/news/medical-research-cell-division-1.13273 "So began ...
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2answers
2k views

Which human cells have the longest and shortest lifespan?

Which cells in a human have the longest lifespan? Which cell has the shortest lifespan?
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2answers
565 views

How does formaldehyde/PBS or methanol fixation of cells affect lysosomal pH?

The question is fairly simple - does formaldehyde or methanol fixation in preparation for immunocytochemistry/immunofluorescent staining affect the pH of the lysosomes? Some background: I'm trying to ...
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2answers
95 views

How did viruses learn to utilize the workings of a cell?

This is my first post here, so excuse me for its simplicity. Viruses can infiltrate a cell, overtake it and multiply. It has projecting fibers whose ends are shaped as kind of a "key" to a mobile ...
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2answers
652 views

Are mature RBCs prokaryotic?

Mature mammalian RBCs have all the characteristics of a eukaryotic cell except that they don't have a nucleus, they don't have any cell organelles. Does this mean that RBCs are classified as ...