The study of cells: their physiological properties, structure, environmental interaction, division, life cycle, and death, as well as the organelles they contain. Also known as cytology.

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Is this a grass cell?

I found this picture online claiming it was a grass cell. Clearly it is a cross section image but I was hoping you could tell me if this is actually grass, or something else if anything. Thanks!
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119 views

why do some cells in the body prefer necrosis to apoptosis as a means of cell death?

There are many programmed cell death pathways, but some cells show a greater preference for some over the other. I'm wondering as to why if necrosis is an inflammatory response that causes damage to ...
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34 views

What has to duplicate before cell enters M phase? [closed]

What has to duplicate before cell enters M phase? DNA histones centrosome mitochondria (any other organelles?) condensins (not sure?) have I forgotten anything? Thank you in advance!
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282 views

How do we look inside the cell?

My sister is in 9th grade biology and her teacher avoided answering the question of how we actually study the inside of a cell. I haven't taken biology in a while but I'd like to give her an answer. ...
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0answers
105 views

How to prevent e coli from clumping (for FACS)?

I'm performing FACS on e coli, but the cells are clumping together so each event is multiple cells. I ran a control where I had one flask of e coli expressing GFP, and one flask expressing RFP. Run ...
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53 views

What were the first neural systems like?

I'm curious about the origin of the neural network. I'm thinking perhaps once life evolved beyond the single cell organism, it needed a simple neural network to coordinate those cells, and cell ...
3
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0answers
42 views

Why is ATP the main nucleoside triphosphate used to exchange energy? [duplicate]

Out of all of the nucleoside triphosphates what makes ATP the most used? Is it its structure? The amount of energy it contains? Why is GTP not used as much? What is the deal with the other nucleoside ...
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77 views

What is the mechanism by which lamins regulate gene expression?

The heterochromatin is generally localized at the nuclear periphery (also near nuclear lamina), whereas active genes are preferentially found in the nuclear interior. Children with ...
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1answer
53 views

How semi-synthetic cell with artificial DNA works

I know that by now this is old new but I heard that a cell that used a synthetic pair of nucleotides, called X and Y, have been made. My question was, how did the cell understand the X and Y ...
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1answer
57 views

Energy metabolism in Cancer cells

The TCA cycle intermediate Isocitrate dehydrogenase commonly undergoes point mutations in cancers. This allows IDH to reduce a-Ketogluterate to 2Hydoxygluterate, causing a reduction in pVHLs ability ...
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1answer
86 views

What effects does being cryogenically frozen have on a person's body? [closed]

I'm wondering what effects are known to happen to a person's cells when a person is cryogenically frozen, especially those that need to be overcome in order to "bring them back to life." From a ...
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3answers
2k views

Does a man contain all the genes needed to make a woman?

This question is brought on by a Sci Fi novel I am thinking about writing. The plot device involves a colonist in charge of building a population on a new planet who loses his supply of embryos and so ...
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1answer
78 views

Why do some cells like myofibrils have multiple nuclei?

I see that myofibrils (muscle cells) contain not one, but multiple nuclei. Why is this so? Do all the nuclei participate in cell division?
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1answer
532 views

Are pulp cells (in oranges) normal plant cells?

Does a pulp cell contain all the elements that a 'normal' plant cell contains? I've searched for an hour to find more information about this but couldn't find anything useful. Is the pulp cell the ...
0
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1answer
85 views

What is the second phase of photosynthesis?

I really want to know what the second phase of photosynthesis (in the dark) is. I have a fair understanding of the first cycle where molecular oxygen is generated under the influence of light, but I ...
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1answer
51 views

When do the spindle fibers attach to the chromosome

At what phase does this occur in mitosis (or even meiosis); some text books say prophase while others say metaphase.
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2answers
129 views

What triggers programmed cell death in humans (from outside the cell)?

What triggers programmed cell death in humans? Is it decided by the brain (for the entire body)? Or is it a local decision of a cell by its environment? Something else? I realize that there might be ...
5
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1answer
95 views

Are There Exceptions to Animal Cells not Having Cell Walls?

In the January Issue of SciAm (discussing Haemophilia): When damage occurs to blood vessels, exposure of the blood to collagen in the cell walls and material released by the cells triggers the ...
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1answer
99 views

What is an operon?

What is an operon in a eukaryotic cell, and how does it regulate the expression of genes? I've already read Wikipedia, but it is not enough clear to me. Unfortunately my knowledge in genetics are very ...
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0answers
41 views

How organized is the inside of a cell? [closed]

I know cells have many ways of organizing and controlling what goes on inside their membranes. But just how ordered or chaotic is it inside a cell? Here's a few thoughts I had. Consider the ...
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2answers
54 views

Are we more/less resistant to infectious diseases during an allergic reaction?

To my understanding, an allergic response is a non-adaptive response of the immune system to some molecule. The molecule in question is therefore "thought by the immune system" to be infectious ...
2
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1answer
44 views

How are lesions in the RNA corrected?

I quite understand why thymine is present in DNA. So we can mark it out where cytosine undergoes a reaction and is converted to uracil. Then we can repair the DNA. But how can we make that out in RNA ...
8
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1answer
233 views

Single long axon vs serial neurons

Based on the comments in this post and also this chat. For discussions and speculations please comment in the chat. The basic question is what is the advantage of having a single long axon such as ...
2
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0answers
32 views

How do I get recombinant proteins into the nucleus of mammal cells?

I know that there are Nuclear Localisation Sequencenes (NLS). They can be taken from endogenous or viral proteins and fused to the N or C terminus of my recombinant protein. Which is the best one? ...
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2answers
2k views

Can brain cells move?

I was discussing this with my brother. I'm pretty sure I read somewhere that they can move. Thanks EDIT: By movement I mean long distance migration (preferably within the brain only).
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1answer
40 views

Estimating RPM to RCF in Methods from Older Papers

I'm attempting to replicate a cell biology method from a 1958 Laboratory Investigation paper. The protocol is for the isolation of an extracellular matrix protein, and a key step is a centrifugation ...
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3answers
155 views

Studying effects of alcohol on cells

I am wondering about the logistics of a simple experiment with say 3 types of alcohols, and various concentrations of each, with a control(s) I would like to research the effects of alcohol on ...
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11 views

Differences in Karr cell model and E-Cell

Recently Karr et al. published in Cell their model of Mycoplasma genitalium and published the complete code. Also, the E-Cell project allows to simulate a complete cell. Can anyone comment on ...
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1answer
48 views

Prevent biofilm formation on moist surfaces

I have an indoor fountain with lots of water. What are the most common microorganisms in this kind of moist environment, and what are the standard way to prevent biofilm formation by them? I thought ...
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1answer
61 views

How does a multicellular, eukaryotic body treat heat-resistant pathogenic bacteria?

How does the said body treat heat-resistant pathogenic bacteria? If fever is the body's response to foreign microbial invasion, then what happens if the bacteria is heat-resistant but the body's own ...
6
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1answer
236 views

Why do some internal organs regenerate?

I have been reading about the human liver and zebra fish heart muscle having the ability to regenerate. It seems to me that these organs have very little chance to become damaged or worn out. At the ...
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1answer
394 views

How are lysosomes formed?

Lysosomes are irregularly shaped membrane bound organelles containing 50 different types of enzymes. But how are they formed? How are they produced??
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94 views

What proportion of salt in water would make it not dehydrate nor hydrate someone? [duplicate]

Drinking sea water can be deadly as it contains too much salt, basically de-hydrating the body. Normal tap water contains little salt and is good for re-hydration. My question: How much salt needs to ...
0
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1answer
172 views

Apoptosis vs necroptosis

I understand that apoptosis and necroptosis share the same upper part of the pathway, but I cannot seem to distinguish when is each one activated? From my readings, it seems that when procaspases 8 or ...
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2answers
1k views

Book Recommendations: GRE Subject Test In Biochemistry, Cell And Molecular Biology

There are probably a lot of really good answers that may vary significantly in terms of content. I'm looking for a set of books that I can read in preparation for the GRE Subject Test In ...
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1answer
46 views

What are the features on a microscope one needs in order to do lab work?

By lab work I mean urinalysis, blood work(live as well), fecals, cytologies, histologies and all other. I have read(partly) a book(from 2002) on lab diagnostics and the author did not mention ...
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20 views

Slicing cell cultures frozen in vitrified ice with a laser for CryoEM

Could a cell culture frozen in vitrified ice for CryoEM be effectively sliced into thin planes and resolved images produced? I was thinking if this could be done to get images from inside a cell.
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1answer
23 views

Centriole genes Knock-out Experiment in Common experimental animals?

Anyone know of any experiments that have knocked out the genes for producing centrioles in a worm, mouse, fish, fly or whatever animal? Are the genes for centrioles even identified? It has been shown ...
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2answers
85 views

How does the cell regulate different metabolic pathways?

I heard somewhere that cells use different nucleosides bound to triphosphates e.g. ATP, GTP, CTP and other modified compounds: NADH, NADPH to distinguish between different metabolic pathways and so ...
2
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2answers
75 views

Does the cellular response to every receptor work the same way?

I heard somewhere that activating any receptor results in the same intracellular response (signaling) which involves NF-κB. If that is true, I hardly understand how the cells distinguish between ...
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3answers
42 views

What are some places where biofilms could develop? [closed]

I'm trying to think of places where a biofilm could develop other than on medical equipment or food processing equipment such as stainless steel mechanized blades or knives. I'm thinking more along ...
5
votes
1answer
677 views

What is the H+ gradient in mitochondria?

I would like to understand what the term H+ Gradient means. I googled this question and found terms such as chemiosmosis and ion gradient being tossed around. I am very new to biology and I do not ...
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1answer
76 views

How do the quantities of ATP formed during aerobic and anaerobic respiration compare? [closed]

How do the quantities of ATP formed during aerobic and anaerobic respiration compare?
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1answer
125 views

Can a human cell live indefinetely in a controlled environment?

How long can a human cell live in a controlled environment, given all necessary nutrients, temperatures, mechanisms for waste removal, and other requirements are provided for? Put differently: Can a ...
4
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2answers
291 views

Does trypsin strip flask coating?

Mammalian cell/tissue cultures sometimes require flasks coated with proteins. My uneducated guess is that these proteins mimic the ECM, perhaps the basal lamina, so finicky contact-dependent cells can ...
4
votes
1answer
87 views

Are all functions of a human cell known? [closed]

Please bear with me as I'm intruding into your world from a computer science background. In programming, once you have created a program, you know all functions of that program. Thus, 100% knowledge ...
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0answers
42 views

Alkaline Phosphatase

What is the predominant purpose of Alkaline Phosphatase in skeletal muscle fibers and liver cells. I know that it is a hydrolase enzyme that speeds up the degredation of proteins, lipids, starch and ...
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2answers
100 views

How to visualize the ECM?

Specifically, I'd like to look at changes in HA (hyaluronic acid) production. Most often you only see people staining the cell surface or removing cells from culture for fixation and then imaging. ...
6
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2answers
638 views

Alternatives to trypsin for cell detachment?

I have ran out of trypsin and need to passage my cells (immortalized chondrocytes, C28/I2) today or tomorrow. I have been out of town and forgot to order more trypsin. I was wondering if there are ...
3
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0answers
41 views

How many cells are there in the apical meristematic tissue?

How many cells are there in the apical meristematic tissue? Looking at this picture... , I would tend to think that there are few hundreds cells in the meristem tissue. But I guess this is a ...